File(s) not publicly available

E07778: Gregory of Tours, in his Histories (8.1 and 8.3), describes how King Guntram arrived at Orléans (north-west Gaul) on the feast day of *Martin (ascetic and bishop of Tours, ob. 397, S00050), 4 July 585. He also refers to the mass celebrated on that day. Written in Latin in Tours (north-west Gaul), 586/594.

online resource
posted on 09.09.2019, 00:00 by dlambert
Gregory of Tours, Histories (Historiae) 8.1 and 8.3

Digressus vero a Neverno ad Aurilianensem urbem venit, magnum se tunc civibus suis praebens. Nam per domibus eorum invitatus abibat et prandia data libabat; multum ab his muneratus muneraque ipsis proflua benignitate largitus est. Sed cum ad urbem Aurilianensem venisset, erat ea die solemnitas beati Martini, id est quarto Nonas mensis quinti.

'From Nevers he [Guntram] turned aside and visited Orléans, where he made a great attempt to establish friendly relations with the townsfolk. When he was invited to their houses he accepted and he greatly enjoyed the meals which they offered him. He received many gifts from them and gave them presents in return with lavish generosity. The day of his entry into Orléans was the feast of Saint Martin, that is 4 July.

During his account (8.3) of events the following day, Gregory mentions that a deacon whom Guntram asked to sing had sung the responses in mass the day before (i.e. on Martin's feast day):

Interea iam medium prandii peractum, iubet rex, ut diaconem nostrum, qui ante die ad missas psalmum responsurium dixerat, canere iuberem.

'When the meal was more than half-way over, the King ordered me to tell my deacon to sing. This was the man who had chanted the Responsorium at Mass the previous day.'

Text: Krusch and Levison 1951, 370, 372. Translation: Thorpe 1974, 432, 435, lightly adapted.


Evidence ID


Saint Name

Martin, ascetic and bishop of Tours, ob. 397 : S00050

Saint Name in Source


Type of Evidence

Literary - Other narrative texts (including Histories)



Evidence not before


Evidence not after


Activity not before


Activity not after


Place of Evidence - Region

Gaul and Frankish kingdoms

Place of Evidence - City, village, etc


Place of evidence - City name in other Language(s)

Tours Tours Tours Toronica urbs Prisciniacensim vicus Pressigny Turonorum civitas Ceratensis vicus Céré

Major author/Major anonymous work

Gregory of Tours

Cult activities - Liturgical Activity

  • Service for the Saint

Cult activities - Festivals

  • Saint’s feast

Cult activities - Places

Cult building - independent (church)

Cult Activities - Protagonists in Cult and Narratives

Ecclesiastics - bishops Ecclesiastics - lesser clergy Monarchs and their family


Gregory of Tours wrote the Histories (Historiae) during his episcopate in Tours (573–594). They constitute the longest and most detailed historical work of the post-Roman West. Gregory's focus is Gaul under its Frankish kings, above all the territories of Tours and (to a lesser extent) Clermont, where he had been born and brought up. Much of his work tells of the years when, as bishop of an important see, he was himself centrally involved in Frankish politics. The Histories are often wrongly referred to as a History of the Franks. Although the work does contain a history of the rulers of Francia, it also includes much hagiographical material, and Gregory himself gave it the simple title the 'ten books of Histories' (decem libri historiarum), when he produced a list of his own writings (Histories 10.31). The Histories consist of ten books whose scope and contents differ considerably. Book 1 skims rapidly through world history, with biblical and secular material from the Creation to the death in AD 397 of Martin of Tours (Gregory’s hero and predecessor as bishop). It covers 5596 years. In Book 2, which covers 114 years, the focus moves firmly into Gaul, covering the years up to the death of Clovis in 511. Books 3 and 4, which cover 37 and 27 years respectively, then move fairly swiftly on, closing with the death of king Sigibert in 575. With Book 5, through to the final Book 10, the pace slows markedly, and the detail swells, with only between two and four years covered in each of the last six books, breaking off in 591. These books are organised in annual form, based on the regnal years of Childebert II (r. 575-595/6). There continues to be much discussion over when precisely Gregory wrote specific parts of the Histories, though there is general agreement that none of it was written before 575 and, of course, none of it after Gregory's death, which is believed to have occurred in 594. Essentially, scholars are divided over whether Gregory wrote the Histories sequentially as the years from 575 unfolded, with little or no revision thereafter, or whether he composed the whole work over the space of a few years shortly before his death and after 585 (see Murray 2015 for the arguments on both sides). For an understanding of the political history of the time, and Gregory's attitude to it, precisely when the various books were written is of great importance; but for what he wrote about the saints, the precise date of composition is of little significance, because Gregory's attitude to saints, their relics and their miracles did not change significantly during his writing-life. We have therefore chosen to date Gregory's writing of our entries only within the broadest possible parameters: with a terminus post quem of 575 for the early books of the Histories, and thereafter the year of the events described, and a terminus ante quem of 594, set by Gregory's death. (Bryan Ward-Perkins, David Lambert) For general discussions of the Histories see: Goffart, W., The Narrators of Barbarian History (A.D. 550–800): Jordanes, Gregory of Tours, Bede, and Paul the Deacon (Princeton, 1988), 119–127. Murray, A.C., "The Composition of the Histories of Gregory of Tours and Its Bearing on the Political Narrative," in: A.C. Murray (ed.), A Companion to Gregory of Tours (Leiden and Boston, 2015), 63–101. Pizarro, J.M., "Gregory of Tours and the Literary Imagination: Genre, Narrative Style, Sources, and Models in the Histories," in: Murray, A Companion to Gregory of Tours, 337–374.


4 July was the feast of Martin's translation. Guntram's visit to Orléans in July 585 was a major event, for which numerous bishops (including Gregory himself) and other members of the clergy had assembled; Gregory's account spreads across several chapters (Histories 8.1-7), and contains several personal reminiscences of his interactions with Guntram (including the incidents described in E02268, E07779, and E07780).


Edition: Krusch, B., and Levison, W., Gregorii episcopi Turonensis Libri historiarum X (Monumenta Germaniae Historica, Scriptores rerum Merovingicarum I.1; 2nd ed.; Hannover, 1951). Translation: Thorpe, L., Gregory of Tours, The History of the Franks (Penguin Classics; London, 1974). Further reading: Murray, A.C., "The Composition of the Histories of Gregory of Tours and Its Bearing on the Political Narrative", in: A.C. Murray (ed.), A Companion to Gregory of Tours (Leiden-Boston 2015), 63-101. Vieillard-Troiekouroff, M., Les monuments religieux de la Gaule d'après les œuvres de Grégoire de Tours (Paris, 1976).

Usage metrics

Evidence -  The Cult of Saints in Late Antiquity