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E06580: Aldhelm, in his prose On Virginity, names *Justina/Ioustina (virgin and martyr of Antioch, S01704) as an exemplary virgin. Written in Latin in southern Britain, for the nuns at the monastery at Barking (south-east Britain), c. 675/686.

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posted on 21.09.2018, 00:00 by bsavill
Aldhelm, prose On Virginity, 43

Denique Iustina, iustitiae bernacula, ab orthodoxis non contemnenda virago, cum Dioclitianus imperii sceptris infeliciter fungeretur, quanta vel qualia apud Antiochiam pro virginitate servanda pertulerit, quis mediocri fretus ingenio expedire se posse gloriatur, ni cuncta signorum et prodigiorum gesta, quae litterarum apicibus inserta leguntur, diligenter didicerit? Quam neque e procus ab integritatis arce detrudere nec magica maleficorum necromantia ullatenus vincere valuerunt [...]

'As for the great and mighty (sufferings) which JUSTINA, a handmaiden of justice and a heroine not to be disdained by the orthodox, endured on behalf of her virginity at Antioch, at the time when Diocletian cursedly was in control of the sceptre of imperial power, what author, who could call on only mediocre talent, will boast that he can narrate them, if he has not diligently learned all the occurrences of signs and miracles which are inscribed in written characters (in books)? Her suitor could not force her from the citadel of impurity, nor could the magic incantations of sorcerers overcome her in any way [...]'

Text: Ehwald 1919, 295. Translation: Lapidge and Herren 1979, 109-10.

History

Evidence ID

E06580

Saint Name

Kyprianos and Ioustina/Justina, martyrs of Antioch : S01704

Saint Name in Source

Iustina

Type of Evidence

Literary - Other

Language

Latin

Evidence not before

675

Evidence not after

686

Activity not before

675

Activity not after

686

Place of Evidence - Region

Britain and Ireland

Place of evidence - City name in other Language(s)

St Albans St Albans Verulamium

Major author/Major anonymous work

Aldhelm

Cult activities - Non Liturgical Practices and Customs

Composing and translating saint-related texts

Cult Activities - Protagonists in Cult and Narratives

Pagans

Source

Aldhelm’s prose treatise On Virginity (De Virginitate), for Abbess Hildelith and the nuns of Barking (south-east Britain), survives in twenty manuscripts, the earliest of which are 9th c. Together with its later, poetic counterpart, it forms what Bede described in 731 as a ‘twinned work’ (opus geminatum), although there is a notable difference between the content and style of the two sections, the second part constituting more than a straightforward ‘versification’ of the first (see E06659). Aldhelm (ob. 709/10) appears to have been a son of Centwine, king of the Gewisse or West Saxons (south-west Britain) from 676 until 682/5, when he abdicated and retired to a monastery. We do not know when Aldhelm himself took religious vows, but he definitely attended, perhaps for many years, Archbishop Theodore and Abbot Hadrian’s school at Canterbury (from shortly after 670?), and possibly studied at the Irish foundation of Iona, off the coast of north-west Britain (perhaps in the 660s?). Around 682/6 he became abbot of the West Saxon monastery of Malmesbury, and in 689 probably accompanied King Cædwalla on his pilgrimage to Rome (see E05710 and E06661). In 705/6 he was appointed ‘bishop west of the wood’ in his home kingdom (later identifiable with the diocese of Sherborne). (For all aspects of Aldhelm’s career see now Lapidge, 2007.) At the core of On Virginity is a lengthy catalogue of exemplary virgins, first men (Old Testament prophets; New Testament figures; martyrs and other saints of the Roman Empire), then women (Mary; martyrs and other saints of the Empire), followed by some remarks on a group of non-virginal, Old Testament sancti who in some sense prefigured Christ. As with Bede in his Marytrology (725/31), Aldhelm makes good use of Roman Martyrdoms and Acts in his accounts of many post-Biblical saints. Although he does not seem to have had the same range of hagiographical material at hand as Bede later would at the monastery of Wearmouth-Jarrow (north-east Britain), his use of the texts is more creative, and he extensively reworks them in his characteristically florid prose style. The prose On Virginity presents difficulties with dating, but the author’s reference to himself in its preface as only a ‘servant’ (bernaculus) of the Church would seem to place it before his abbacy in 682/6 (ibid., 67-9). Meanwhile – if the twelfth-century chronicler John of Worcester is correct – Aldhelm’s chief dedicatee Hildelith only appears to have taken control over Barking in 675, thus allowing us to date the work cautiously to somewhere within 675/86. This is significant, since it suggests that the many Martyrdoms which Aldhelm used among his sources (including several translated from the Greek) were available to him in southern Britain before his probable visit to Rome in 689.

Discussion

Aldhelm's main source for this passage is the Latin translation of the Martyrdom of Cyprian and Iustina (E01163, E01164, E01165) (Lapidge and Herren, 1979, 177).

Bibliography

Edition: Ehwald, R., Aldhelmi opera (Monumenta Germaniae Historica, Auctores Antiquissimi 15; Berlin, 1919). Translation: Lapidge, M., and Herren, M., Aldhelm, The Prose Works (Cambridge, 1979). Further reading: Lapidge, M., "The Career of Aldhelm," Anglo-Saxon England 36 (2007), 15-69.

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