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E04602: The 6th/7th c. recension of the Latin Martyrologium Hieronymianum records the feasts of a number of saints on 7 January.

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posted on 15.01.2018, 00:00 by marijana
The Martyrologium Hieronymianum is preserved in a number of early manuscripts, which share much in common but also diverge so that it is impossible to reconstruct from them a single authoritative text. Below we, therefore, offer separate English translations of each important early manuscript, and by clicking the 'Datum Table' button, you can view these different versions in their original Latin, set side-by-side for ease of comparison. For a full discussion of the Martyrologium, click 'Discussion/Bibliography.'


The Martyrologium Hieronymianum commemorates on 7 January the following feasts:


*Loukianos/Lucian of Antioch, theologian and martyr of Nicomedia and Helenopolis (S00151),
*Polyeuktos, soldier and martyr of Melitene (S00325),
Return of the family of Jesus from Egypt to Nazareth,
Perhaps *Philorōmos (martyr of Nicomedia, S00832),
*Lesser saints, on 7 January in the Martyrologium Hieronymianum: in Heraclea (Thrace), Greece, Antioch, and elsewhere (S02220).


The translation:

BnF 10837:


"On the seventh day before the Ides of January, in Nicomedia, [the feast of] priest Lucianus.

And in Antioch, [the feast of] deacon Lucerus.

In the city of Melitene (Asia Minor), [the feast of] Poliuctus.

In Heraclea (Thrace), [the feast of] Felix and Ianuarus.

And in Greece, [the feast of] Spolicostus, Pallada, Candida.

In another place, [the feast of] Poliartus, Filon, Candida."


Bern 289:

"On the seventh day before the Ides of January, in Nicomedia, [the feast of] priest Lucianus, who was torn into four parts, and left.

In the city of Melitene (Asia Minor), the feast of Poliottus.

In Heraclea (Thrace), [the feast of] Felix, bishop Esidorus.

[The feast of] return of Jesus from Egypt.

[The feast of] Costinus, Palladus, Candida.

In another place, [the feast of] Poliastus, Filoron, Candedianus, Euctus."


Weissenburg 81:


"On the seventh day before the Ides of January, in Nicomedia, [the feast of] priest Lucianus, who was torn into four parts, and left.

In the city of Melitene, the feast of Pilioctus.

In Heraclea (Thrace), [the feast of] Felix and Ianuarus.

In Greece, [the feast of] Polecostis, Palatus, Candida.

In another place, [the feast of] Poliastus, Philoron, Candedianus, Euctus."



Quentin follows the manuscripts.

Delehaye also follows the manuscripts to a significant extent.



Translation and comments: M. Vukovic.

History

Evidence ID

E04602

Saint Name

Loukianos/Lucian of Antioch, theologian and martyr of Nicomedia and Helenopolis : S00151 Polyeuktos, soldier and martyr of Melitene : S00325 Philorōmos, martyr in Nicomedia : S00832 lesser saints, on 7 January in the Martyrologium Hieronymianum: i

Saint Name in Source

Lucianus Poliuctus/Poliottus/Pilioctus Filon/Philoron/Filoron

Type of Evidence

Liturgical texts - Calendars and martyrologies

Language

Latin

Evidence not before

600

Evidence not after

800

Activity not before

430

Activity not after

800

Place of Evidence - Region

Gaul and Frankish kingdoms

Place of evidence - City name in other Language(s)

Tours Tours Toronica urbs Prisciniacensim vicus Pressigny Turonorum civitas Ceratensis vicus Céré

Major author/Major anonymous work

Martyrologium Hieronymianum

Cult activities - Festivals

  • Saint’s feast

Cult activities - Non Liturgical Practices and Customs

Transmission, copying and reading saint-related texts

Source

Martyrologium Hieronymianum, or the Martyrology of (Pseudo) Jerome, is the oldest extant martyrology in the Medieval Latin West. It was falsely ascribed to the prominent Christian author, Jerome. This collection is the primary source of all other martyrologies in the Latin West. The predominant scholarly view is that the martyrology was first compiled in Northern Italy during the 5th century (probably Aquileia). No manuscript from the Aquileian redaction has survived. The text was revised in Gaul, probably Auxerre or Autun, in the 6th-7th century. This view relies on the evidence that some names of saints who lived in northern Italy and Frankish Gaul in the 6th - 7th century are present in the martyrology. The preserved text is known as the recensio Gallica, dated to 600 CE. At some point in the 7th century and no later than the early 8th century, the text was transmitted in England (Lapinge, 2005, 45). One or several copies reached England (Northumbria), where the text underwent some revision (Lapinge, 2005, 46). The text may have been eventually taken back to the continent where its earliest surviving copies are preserved in the manuscripts listed below (Lapinge, 2005, 73). The compilers of the Martyrologium Hieronymianum relied on several sources: some early local calendars from Auxerre and Aquileia (Lifshitz, 20), The Chronography of 354 (E01051), a Greek martyrology compiled at Nicomedia around 360 AD (drawn basically from Eusebius, the Ecclesiastical History and the Martyrs of Palestine), which is familiar from the Syriac Martyrology of 411 AD (E00465), and the African Calendar of Carthage, from 505-535 AD (E02195, E02196, E02197, E02198, E02199, E02200, E02201, E02202, E02203, E02204, E02205). The earliest and most famous manuscripts that contain the Martyrology of Jerome, which are listed below, date to the 8th century: MS Paris, BnF lat. 10.837 A single scribe, Laurentius, produced the manuscript BnF 10.837 from Echternach between 703 and 710 (Lifshitz, 32). The Catalogue of BnF, which publishes the manuscript BnF lat. 10.837 online, also provides brief information about the dating: https://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/btv1b6001113z/f22.image MS Wolfenbüttel, Herzog August Bibliothek, Weissenburg 81 F. Lifshitz argues that Weissenburg 81 dates around 772. An online manuscript catalog reveals that the manuscript is from the 8th century: http://diglib.hab.de/?db=mss&list=ms&id=81-weiss&lang=en MS Bern, Burgerbibliothek, Bongars 289 De Rossi and Duchesne, in the introduction to their edition, argue that Bern 289 does not date earlier than 766. Vatican, BAV, Pal. lat. 238 The manuscript now in the Vatican originates from Lorsch. According to the online catalog (http://bibliotheca-laureshamensis-digital.de/bav/bav_pal_lat_238), the manuscript consists of two formerly independent parts, which were both written in Lorsch: the first part (fol. 3-73, Iulianus Pomerius) was written around 800, and the added fragment, which contains the Martyrologium Hieronymianum, (fol. 74-75, 1-2) was written in the first half of the 9th century. The three 8th-century manuscripts contain two redactions, the first, preserved in the manuscript BnF lat. 10.837, already containing the Northumbrian redaction, and the second redaction, preserved in the manuscripts Bern 289 and Weissenburg 81. The standard edition by G. B. de Rossi and L. Duchesne publishes the four important 8th-century manuscripts in the parallel columns. Another edition is by H. Quentin with the commentary by H. Delehaye. In this database, the following manuscripts and editions of the Martyrologium Hieronymianum are used: - MS Paris, BnF lat. 10.837 (Codex Epternacensis), fol. 2r-32v, 8th century, from the monastery Echternach in Luxembourg - MS Bern, Burgerbibliothek, Bongars 289 (Codex Bernensis), fol. 53v-129v, 8th century, from St. Avold near Metz - MS Wolfenbüttel, Herzog August Bibliothek, Weissenburg 81 (Codex Wissenburgensis), fol. 7r-103r, 8th century, from a Carolingian royal institution in or around Maastricht (Lifshitz, 4) - MS Vatican, BAV, Pal. lat. 238 (Fragmentum Laureshamense), fragment (consists of five pages within the manuscript BAV Palat. 238, containing the Martyrologium Hieronymianum from 25 December to 3 January, and from 27 January to 31 January), 8th to 9th century, from the monastery of Lorsch - De Rossi, G. B., and Duchesne, L., Martyrologium Hieronymianum ad finem codicum adiectis prolegomenis. Acta Sanctorum Nov.II.1 (Brussels, 1894) - Quentin, H. and Delehaye, H., Acta Sanctorum Nov.II.2 (Brussels, 1931) In the database, the text of the four 8th-century manuscripts is displayed in the first columns of the Datum Table. The texts are from the edition of G. B. de Rossi and L. Duchesne; however, the text is, at times, corrected after the consultation with the manuscripts. The corrections pertain to letters, words, and sentences. The manuscript Vatican BAV 238 is entirely from the edition of de Rossi and Duchesne. Furthermore, the text from the edition of Quentin is presented in two further columns. Finally, the text from the Commentary of H. Delehaye is placed in the sixth and final column of the Datum Table. Sources: Lifshitz, 2006; Lapinge, 2005; idem, 2018; Summary: M. Vukovic.

Discussion

On 7 January, all three manuscripts of the Martyrologium record the commemoration of *Loukianos/Lucian of Antioch, theologian, and martyr of Nicomedia and Helenopolis (S00151), who is commemorated on the same day in the Syriac Martyrology (E01406). There is quite an unusual entry in MSS Bern 289 and Weissenburg 81 regarding this saint. The text says, "qui quattuor partibus factus est et reliqua." It is not sure whether this is the way Loukianos died or was tortured (or both). The metaphrastic Greek martyrdom BHG 997 possibly gives more information on this issue (PG 114, col. 409), as it describes in a considerable detail a device by which the saint´s legs and arms were pulled apart. The device had four holes for limbs. For more detail on the martyrdom text, see E06124. Interestingly, in this way, a Greek metaphrastic hagiography has made its way into this Latin calendar. As for the Latin tradition of his passion, it comes from Eusebius´ Ecclesiastical History (you can see some of these entries in the database); there is little room for the fantastic details in the story. Also, all three manuscripts here record the commemoration of *Polyeuktos, soldier, and martyr of Melitene (S00325), on the same day as in the Syriac Martyrology (E01406). Only the manuscript BnF 10837 records on 7 January the commemoration of Lucerus in Antioch. Delehaye is not sure as to who this saint was. He suggests a few other names, Glycerius and Clerus, and he involves the later tradition to understand the identity of this saint. We will consider him here to be among *Lesser saints, on 7 January in the Martyrologium Hieronymianum: in Heraclea (Thrace), Greece, Antioch, and elsewhere (S02220). Delehaye is not sure as to who were the saints Felix and Ianuarus, commemorated in Heraclea (Thrace) in the manuscripts of the Martyrologium Hieronymianum. MS Bern 289 replaces Ianuarus with Esidorus. Delehaye emphasizes that the Syriac Martyrology commemorates some other saints of this date, while the names Felix and Ianuarus are also quite common. They are considered here as *Lesser saints, on 7 January in the Martyrologium Hieronymianum: in Heraclea (Thrace), Greece, Antioch, and elsewhere (S02220). MS Bern 289 records on 7 January the commemoration of the Return of the family of Jesus from Egypt to Nazareth. This episode in the life of Jesus is mentioned in the Gospel of Matthew, and is it elaborated in the Apocryphal Gospels (e.g., Gospel of Pseudo-Matthew). A number of saints commemorated on 7 January are not identified. Spolicostus/Polecostis/Costinus, Pallada/Palladus/Palatus, and Candida, commemorated in Greece, are not identified. They are considered here as *Lesser saints, on 7 January in the Martyrologium Hieronymianum: in Heraclea (Thrace), Greece, Antioch, and elsewhere (S02220). Poliastus/Poliartus, Filon/Philoron/Filoron, Candida/Candedianus, and Euctus, commemorated "elsewhere," are not straightforwardly identified. Perhaps Philoron could be identified as *Philorōmos (martyr of Nicomedia, S00832), who is commemorated on 8 January in the Syriac Martyrology (E01407); the rest are *Lesser saints, on 7 January in the Martyrologium Hieronymianum: in Heraclea (Thrace), Greece, Antioch, and elsewhere (S02220).

Bibliography

On the Martyrologium Hieronymianum: Duchesne, L., "A propos du Martyrologe Hieronymien," Analecta Bollandiana 17 (1898), 421-447. Lapinge, M., The Roman Martyrs: Introduction, Translations, and Commentary (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2018). Lapinge, M., "Acca of Hexham and the Origin of the Old English Martyrology," Analecta Bollandiana 123 (2005), 29-78. Lifshitz, F., The Name of the Saint. The Martyrology of Jerome and Access to the Sacred in Francia, 627-827 (Notre Dame, Indiana: University of Notre Dame Press, 2006). Riain, P. O., "A Northumbrian Phase in the Formation of the Hieronymian Martyrology. The Evidence of the Martyrology of Tallaght," Analecta Bollandiana 120 (2002), 311-363. On the manuscripts of the Martyrologium Hieronymianum: Butzmann, H., Die Weissenburger Handschriften. Frankfurt am Main: Klostermann, 1964 (Wolfenbüttel: Neue Reihe, Bd. 10), 242-243. Muller, J. C., Trois manuscrits liturgiques de l'abbaye d'Echternach à Paris (Abteistadt Echternach), 202-206. Croinin, D. O., "Rath Melsigi, Willibrord, and the earliest Echternach Manuscripts," Peritia 3 (1984), 17-39. Libaert, P., "Notice sur 43 manuscrits d'Echternach conservés à la bibliothèque nationale de Paris," Hémecht 1 (1985), 53-73. McKitterick, R., Books, Scribes and Learning in the Frankish Kingdoms, Sixth-Ninth Centuries (Aldershot: Variorum, 1994). On saints and calendars: Farmer, D. H., Oxford Dictionary of Saints (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1978). Nilles, N., Kalendarium Manuale utriusque ecclesiae prientalis et occidentalis I-II (England: Gregg International Publishers Limited England, 1971). Watkins, B., The Book on Saints: A Comprehensive Biographical Dictionary (London: Bloomsbury T&T Clark, 2015).

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