File(s) not publicly available

E04583: The 6th/7th c. recension of the Latin Martyrologium Hieronymianum records the feasts of a number of saints on 3 January.

online resource
posted on 12.01.2018, 00:00 by marijana
The Martyrologium Hieronymianum is preserved in a number of early manuscripts, which share much in common but also diverge so that it is impossible to reconstruct from them a single authoritative text. Below we, therefore, offer separate English translations of each important early manuscript, and by clicking the 'Datum Table' button, you can view these different versions in their original Latin, set side-by-side for ease of comparison. For a full discussion of the Martyrologium, click 'Discussion/Bibliography.'


The Martyrologium Hieronymianum commemorates on 3 January the following feasts:

*Cyrinus, Primus, and Theogenes, martyrs of Cyzicus at Hellespont (Asia Minor), ob. 320, (S02211),
The burial of *Genovefa/Geneviève (ascetic of Paris, ob. 502/512, S01156),
The burial of *Florentus (bishop of Vienne (Gaul), S02213),
*Anteros (bishop and martyr of Rome, S00170),
The death of *Erembertus, bishop of Toulouse, ob. 674 (S02215),
*Narcissus, Argeus, and Marcellinus, martyrs of Tomis (Black sea), 4th cent., (S02737),
*Lesser saints, on 3 January in the Martyrologium Hieronymianum: in Tomis and Africa (S02214).


The translation:

BnF 10837:

"On the third day before the Nones of January, in Hellespont, in the city of Cyzicus, [the feast of] Ciricus, Primus, Theoginis.

And in the city of Tomis, [the feast of] Claudion, Eugenis, Rodus, three brothers, Argeus, Narcissus, and Marcellinus, the Christian boys, and Dioginus, Eugentus, Rodon, Prima.

In Africa, [the feast of] Marcialis, Statulianus, Constantus, Possesor, Hilarinus, Firmus, Candidus, Rogatianus, Eugenia, Lucida, Acuta, Paenica.

In Paris, [the feast of] virgin Genefeva.

In Vienne, the burial of Florentus."


Weissenburg 81:

"On the third day before the Nones of January, in Hellespont, in the city of Cyzicus, [the feast of] Ciricus, Primus, Theugenes.

And in the city of Thomis, [the feast of] Claudion, Eugenus, Rodus, and three brothers, Argeus, Narcissus, and Marcellinus, the Christian boys, bishop Felus, who suffered under Licinius, and Digoiunus, Eugentus, Rodon, Prima.

In Africa, [the feast of] Lucideus, Marcialis, Statulianus, Constantus, Possessor, Hilarinus, Pennica, Firmus, Candedus, Rogatianus, Eugenia, Aguta.

In Paris, the burial of virgin Genoueua.

In Vienne, the burial of blessed bishop Florentus.

And the death of bishop Ermbertus."


MS Bern 289:

"On the third day before the Nones of January, in Hellespont, in the city of Cyzicus, [the feast of] Cyricus, Primus, Theugenis.

And in the city of Tomis, [the feast of] Claudion, Eugenus, Rodus, and three brothers, Argetus, Narcissus, and Marcellinus, the Christian boys, bishop Anifilius, and Digoiunus, Eugentus, Codon, Prima.

In Africa, [the feast of] Lucideus, Marcialis, Statulianus, Constantus, Possesor, Hilarinus, Penniceus, Firmus, Candedus, Rogatianus, Eugenia, Acuta.

In Rome, [the feast of] Pope Antherus.

In Paris, the burial of the virgin saint Genoueua.

In Vienne, the burial of the blessed bishop Florentus."


BAV 238 contains the extended text attached to the commemorations in Tomis, related to Filus bishop. This manuscript does not contain the commemorations in Paris and Vienne.

Quentin follows all the manuscripts (including BAV 238).

Delehaye takes over and somewhat corrects the story that appears in BAV 238. He records some commemorations from the manuscripts.


Translation and comments: M. Vukovic.

History

Evidence ID

E04583

Saint Name

Cyrinus, Primus, and Theogenes, martyrs of Cyzicus at Hellespont (Asia Minor), ob. 320 : S02211 Genovefa/Geneviève, ascetic of Paris, ob. 502/512 AD : S01156 Florentus, bishop of Vienne (Gaul) : S02213 Anteros, bishop and martyr of Rome : S00170

Saint Name in Source

Ciricus/Cyricus; Primus; Theoginis/Theugenis/Theugenes Genefeva/Genoueua Florentus/Florens Antherus Ermbertus Argeus/Argetus; Narcissus; Marcellinus

Type of Evidence

Liturgical texts - Calendars and martyrologies

Language

Latin

Evidence not before

600

Evidence not after

800

Activity not before

430

Activity not after

800

Place of Evidence - Region

Gaul and Frankish kingdoms

Place of evidence - City name in other Language(s)

Tours Tours Toronica urbs Prisciniacensim vicus Pressigny Turonorum civitas Ceratensis vicus Céré

Major author/Major anonymous work

Martyrologium Hieronymianum

Cult activities - Festivals

  • Saint’s feast

Cult activities - Places

Burial site of a saint - unspecified

Cult Activities - Relics

Bodily relic - entire body

Source

Martyrologium Hieronymianum, or the Martyrology of (Pseudo) Jerome, is the oldest extant martyrology in the Medieval Latin West. It was falsely ascribed to the prominent Christian author, Jerome. This collection is the primary source of all other martyrologies in the Latin West. The predominant scholarly view is that the martyrology was first compiled in Northern Italy during the 5th century (probably Aquileia). No manuscript from the Aquileian redaction has survived. The text was revised in Gaul, probably Auxerre or Autun, in the 6th-7th century. This view relies on the evidence that some names of saints who lived in northern Italy and Frankish Gaul in the 6th - 7th century are present in the martyrology. The preserved text is known as the recensio Gallica, dated to 600 CE. At some point in the 7th century and no later than the early 8th century, the text was transmitted in England (Lapinge, 2005, 45). One or several copies reached England (Northumbria), where the text underwent some revision (Lapinge, 2005, 46). The text may have been eventually taken back to the continent where its earliest surviving copies are preserved in the manuscripts listed below (Lapinge, 2005, 73). The compilers of the Martyrologium Hieronymianum relied on several sources: some early local calendars from Auxerre and Aquileia (Lifshitz, 20), The Chronography of 354 (E01051), a Greek martyrology compiled at Nicomedia around 360 AD (drawn basically from Eusebius, the Ecclesiastical History and the Martyrs of Palestine), which is familiar from the Syriac Martyrology of 411 AD (E00465), and the African Calendar of Carthage, from 505-535 AD (E02195, E02196, E02197, E02198, E02199, E02200, E02201, E02202, E02203, E02204, E02205). The earliest and most famous manuscripts that contain the Martyrology of Jerome, which are listed below, date to the 8th century: MS Paris, BnF lat. 10.837 A single scribe, Laurentius, produced the manuscript BnF 10.837 from Echternach between 703 and 710 (Lifshitz, 32). The Catalogue of BnF, which publishes the manuscript BnF lat. 10.837 online, also provides brief information about the dating: https://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/btv1b6001113z/f22.image MS Wolfenbüttel, Herzog August Bibliothek, Weissenburg 81 F. Lifshitz argues that Weissenburg 81 dates around 772. An online manuscript catalog reveals that the manuscript is from the 8th century: http://diglib.hab.de/?db=mss&list=ms&id=81-weiss&lang=en MS Bern, Burgerbibliothek, Bongars 289 De Rossi and Duchesne, in the introduction to their edition, argue that Bern 289 does not date earlier than 766. Vatican, BAV, Pal. lat. 238 The manuscript now in the Vatican originates from Lorsch. According to the online catalog (http://bibliotheca-laureshamensis-digital.de/bav/bav_pal_lat_238), the manuscript consists of two formerly independent parts, which were both written in Lorsch: the first part (fol. 3-73, Iulianus Pomerius) was written around 800, and the added fragment, which contains the Martyrologium Hieronymianum, (fol. 74-75, 1-2) was written in the first half of the 9th century. The three 8th-century manuscripts contain two redactions, the first, preserved in the manuscript BnF lat. 10.837, already containing the Northumbrian redaction, and the second redaction, preserved in the manuscripts Bern 289 and Weissenburg 81. The standard edition by G. B. de Rossi and L. Duchesne publishes the four important 8th-century manuscripts in the parallel columns. Another edition is by H. Quentin with the commentary by H. Delehaye. In this database, the following manuscripts and editions of the Martyrologium Hieronymianum are used: - MS Paris, BnF lat. 10.837 (Codex Epternacensis), fol. 2r-32v, 8th century, from the monastery Echternach in Luxembourg - MS Bern, Burgerbibliothek, Bongars 289 (Codex Bernensis), fol. 53v-129v, 8th century, from St. Avold near Metz - MS Wolfenbüttel, Herzog August Bibliothek, Weissenburg 81 (Codex Wissenburgensis), fol. 7r-103r, 8th century, from a Carolingian royal institution in or around Maastricht (Lifshitz, 4) - MS Vatican, BAV, Pal. lat. 238 (Fragmentum Laureshamense), fragment (consists of five pages within the manuscript BAV Palat. 238, containing the Martyrologium Hieronymianum from 25 December to 3 January, and from 27 January to 31 January), 8th to 9th century, from the monastery of Lorsch - De Rossi, G. B., and Duchesne, L., Martyrologium Hieronymianum ad finem codicum adiectis prolegomenis. Acta Sanctorum Nov.II.1 (Brussels, 1894) - Quentin, H. and Delehaye, H., Acta Sanctorum Nov.II.2 (Brussels, 1931) In the database, the text of the four 8th-century manuscripts is displayed in the first columns of the Datum Table. The texts are from the edition of G. B. de Rossi and L. Duchesne; however, the text is, at times, corrected after the consultation with the manuscripts. The corrections pertain to letters, words, and sentences. The manuscript Vatican BAV 238 is entirely from the edition of de Rossi and Duchesne. Furthermore, the text from the edition of Quentin is presented in two further columns. Finally, the text from the Commentary of H. Delehaye is placed in the sixth and final column of the Datum Table. Sources: Lifshitz, 2006; Lapinge, 2005; idem, 2018; Summary: M. Vukovic.

Discussion

On 3 January, all four manuscripts of the Martyrologium commemorate the saints with name variations - Ciricus/Cyricus, Primus, Theoginis/Theugenis/Theugenes, who are identified as *Cyrinus, Primus, and Theogenes, martyrs of Cyzicus at Hellespont (Asia Minor), ob. 320, (S02211), who suffered under Licinius (see Watkins, 714). Delehaye explains that Parethia/Pharetia in Hellespont is Pario or Cyzicus prima, an ancient town of Mysia in Anatolia in the current Balıkesir Province of Turkey. Also, the three earliest manuscripts of the Martyrologium record on 3 January *Genovefa/Geneviève (ascetic of Paris, ob. 502/512, S01156), and two manuscripts make it precise that this is her burial day. *Florentus, (bishop of Vienne (Gaul), S02213) appears in three early manuscripts of the Martyrologium to have a commemoration of his burial on 3 January. His century of death is not secure. MS Bern 289 records on 3 January the commemoration of *Anteros (bishop and martyr of Rome, S00170). Claudion, Eugenis/Eugenus, Rodus, Dioginus/Digoiunus, Eugentus, Rodon/Codon, and Prima, commemorated in Tomis, are not identified. They are among *Lesser saints, on 3 January in the Martyrologium Hieronymianum: in Tomis and Africa (S02214). Argeus/Argetus, Narcissus, and Marcellinus are identified as *Narcissus, Argeus, and Marcellinus, martyrs of Tomis (Black sea), 4th cent., (S02737). A bishop Anifilus, whose name appears in MS Bern 289, and its version Felus in MS Weissenburg 81, turn in MS BAV 238 into the sentence ..."pueri Xp̃iani Fili ep̃i qui sub licinio inter tyrones conp̃hensus cum nollet...," where "the Christian children become the sons of a bishop who..." Therefore, the name of the bishop is not identified here. Lucideus/Lucida, Marcialis, Statulianus, Constantus, Possesor, Hilarinus, Penniceus/Paenica, Firmus, Candedus/Candidus, Rogatianus, Eugenia, Acuta, commemorated in Africa, are not identified. They are among *Lesser saints, on 3 January in the Martyrologium Hieronymianum: in Tomis and Africa (S02214). MS Weissenburg 81 records the death of *Erembertus, bishop of Toulouse, ob. 674 (S02215), whose feast day is 14 May.

Bibliography

On the Martyrologium Hieronymianum: Duchesne, L., "A propos du Martyrologe Hieronymien," Analecta Bollandiana 17 (1898), 421-447. Lapinge, M., The Roman Martyrs: Introduction, Translations, and Commentary (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2018). Lapinge, M., "Acca of Hexham and the Origin of the Old English Martyrology," Analecta Bollandiana 123 (2005), 29-78. Lifshitz, F., The Name of the Saint. The Martyrology of Jerome and Access to the Sacred in Francia, 627-827 (Notre Dame, Indiana: University of Notre Dame Press, 2006). Riain, P. O., "A Northumbrian Phase in the Formation of the Hieronymian Martyrology. The Evidence of the Martyrology of Tallaght," Analecta Bollandiana 120 (2002), 311-363. On the manuscripts of the Martyrologium Hieronymianum: Butzmann, H., Die Weissenburger Handschriften. Frankfurt am Main: Klostermann, 1964 (Wolfenbüttel: Neue Reihe, Bd. 10), 242-243. Muller, J. C., Trois manuscrits liturgiques de l'abbaye d'Echternach à Paris (Abteistadt Echternach), 202-206. Croinin, D. O., "Rath Melsigi, Willibrord, and the earliest Echternach Manuscripts," Peritia 3 (1984), 17-39. Libaert, P., "Notice sur 43 manuscrits d'Echternach conservés à la bibliothèque nationale de Paris," Hémecht 1 (1985), 53-73. McKitterick, R., Books, Scribes and Learning in the Frankish Kingdoms, Sixth-Ninth Centuries (Aldershot: Variorum, 1994). On saints and calendars: Farmer, D. H., Oxford Dictionary of Saints (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1978). Nilles, N., Kalendarium Manuale utriusque ecclesiae prientalis et occidentalis I-II (England: Gregg International Publishers Limited England, 1971). Watkins, B., The Book on Saints: A Comprehensive Biographical Dictionary (London: Bloomsbury T&T Clark, 2015).

Usage metrics

Categories

Licence

Exports