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E02515: The Martyrdom of *Susanna (virgin and martyr of Rome, S00892) is written in Latin, presumably in Rome in the titulus Gai, between around 450 and the 8th c., perhaps before 550. It narrates Susanna’s resistance, with the help of her father Gabinius and her uncle Gaius (bishop of Rome, S00661), to plans to marry her to Diocletian’s adoptive son Maximian; the conversions and martyrdom of her relatives Claudius, Praepedigna, Alexander, Cutia, and Maximus (martyrs of Rome, S01440); Susanna’s martyrdom in Gaius’ house, her burial in the cemetery of Alexander. Commemoration services are celebrated in Gaius’ house at the place called ad duas domos.

online resource
posted on 08.03.2017, 00:00 by mpignot
Martyrdom of Susanna (BHL 7937)

Summary:

The numbering of paragraphs is taken from the Acta Sanctorum edition; however, since the text was published in two parts in separate volumes, the following adaptation has been followed: for ease of reference, numbering of the second part (pars altera = Aug., II, 631-2) is here rendered as continuous with that of the first part (pars prior = Febr., III, 61-4). The original numbers of paragraphs in the second part are given in brackets after the numbers in the continuous sequence.

§ 1: At the time of the emperors Diocletian and Maximian, there is a priest called Gabinius, the biological brother of the bishop of Rome Gaius (Caius), a most learned Christian. He frequently discusses with Gaius, he produces a treatise against pagans (tractationes contra paganos), and is most learned in secular learning (eruditio litterarum mundanae artis). He is of noble birth and a relative of the emperor Diocletian. He has an only daughter, whom he teaches secular learning so that she comes to equal him.

§ 2: Diocletian hears of the girl’s beauty and wisdom, and writes to Gabinius asking him to marry her to his son, the emperor Maximian. His intermediary is Claudius, Gabinius’ cousin. Claudius puts the proposal to Gabinius, emphasising the distinction which would attach to such a match.

§ 3: Gabinius seems taken aback, believing that he hardly deserves this honour. But Claudius reminds Gabinius of the nobility of his family, and restates the invitation to marry his daughter into the imperial family. Gabinius asks to be granted some time to discuss the matter with his daughter, and they part.

§ 4: Gabinius goes to his daughter, called Susanna, and embracing her says that he wishes her to see the bishop Gaius her uncle (zius) so that he might reinforce the Holy Spirit in her. He asks Gaius to come to him, and recounts to him what has happened. Then, with tears in their eyes, they go into Gabinius’ house and tell Susanna that Diocletian has asked her to marry Maximian.

§ 5: Susanna replies to her father wondering whether he has lost wisdom and forgotten that she is a Christian, and emphasising that he has been polluted by such request to marry a pagan. She glorifies God, for she believes that her refusal will bring her to the palm of martyrdom. So Gabinius tells her to stand firm in her faith, while Gaius praises her constancy. Susanna remarks to them that she has been instructed by them to always keep chastity, and so she will keep her pledge to Jesus Christ. Gaius exhorts her to keep God’s commandments and recalls that, as said in the Gospel, she will find words to speak thanks to the Holy Spirit when questioned (Matt. 10:19-20). Susanna replies tearfully that she hopes to be made God’s temple through their prayers, and – in the words of Paul – that this temple is holy and should not be deceived (1 Cor. 3:17-18).

§ 6: Three days later, Claudius comes to them on his own and enters Gabinius’ house joyfully. They embrace each other and he salutes them in the name of the emperor Diocletian and tells them that the emperor asks Susanna to be married to his son Maximian. Gabinius replies that they have nothing against it but should seek the opinion of Susanna herself.

§ 7: Susanna is summoned to their presence. Claudius tearfully wishes to embrace and kiss her. However Susanna tells him not to contaminate her mouth, since she is devoted to Christ, and no man may touch her mouth. When Claudius, bewildered, says he only wanted to show his care for her, Susanna states that his mouth is polluted with sacrifices to idols. Claudius asks how his mouth might be purified; she tells him that he must repent and be baptised in the name of the Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit.

§ 8: Claudius begs Gaius to be purified. The bishop begins to instruct him, advising him that those who are burdened will be relieved by Christ (Matt. 11:28), and that there is no heavier sinful burden than the worship of idols. The world was made by the Lord God, who came down from heaven, was born from a virgin, died, was resurrected, and ascended to heaven precisely to free sinners, worshippers of idols. Claudius agrees to do all that they suggest, but asks that Diocletian’s request should not be delayed. Gaius replies that first Claudius should fulfil their request, and then everything else will follow.

§ 9: Claudius requests further instructions about what commandments he should follow; he also wants to know what to say to Diocletian. Gaius tells him to repent for the blood of saints spilled, and to be baptised. He quotes the Lord saying that before princes and governors, He will give them wisdom to overcome their opponents (Luke 21:12-15). Claudius asks if baptism will wipe away all his bad deeds and Gaius confirms that it will, if he believes. Susanna throws herself at Gaius’ feet and beseeches him not to delay Claudius’ baptism. Gaius replies that he must ask if Claudius believes with all his heart. Claudius says that he will believe if his crimes will be pardoned. Gaius tells him in the name of Jesus Christ and God that all his sins will be forgiven. That same day, Claudius, throwing himself to the ground before Gaius’ feet and scattering dust over his head, asks the Lord God for forgiveness for what he has done to the saints and for worshipping idols, which he now rejects. He asks to be filled with grace, so that his sons and his wife shall know that God saves all those who place their hope in Him. Gaius makes him a catechumen, gives him the medicine (medicina) and sends him on his way.

§ 10: When he returns home, Claudius tells his wife everything. Then his wife, Praepedigna, stupefied by what she has heard, asks her husband who led him down this course. Claudius replies that it was the bishop Gaius, the priest Gabinius and above all the virgin girl Susanna. At this point Praepedigna enters her closed litter (cavea basternae), goes to Gabinius’ house and meets Gaius alone. The bishop, seeing her, gives thanks to God. She throws herself at Gaius’ feet, kisses them and in tears asks him to save his servant Claudius, her and their sons. Hearing this, Susanna comes out of her room and embraces Praepedigna joyfully. The following night, Claudius comes with his two sons to Gabinius’ house, throws himself at his feet, asking to be baptised with his wife and sons.

§ 11: Praepedigna and the children, caller Alexander and Cutia, are made catechumens according to custom and given the medicine of wisdom (medicina sapientiae). Then they are initiated (catechizare). Claudius is baptised in the name of the Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit for the forgiveness of sins and the resurrection of the flesh, standing naked in a wooden basin, after replying ‘I believe’, when asked respectively about his belief in God the Father, Jesus Christ, Jesus Christ born from the Holy Spirit, and Jesus Christ born from the Holy Spirit and the Virgin Mary. He is anointed with the chrism by the bishop Gaius, who baptises Praepedigna, and Alexander and Cutia, who are received by Gabinius [as godfather]. After rising from the font they all participate in the Eucharist in the same house.

§ 12: From that day, Claudius starts selling all his property and giving the money to the Christian poor. He seeks out the secret and hidden places where Christians live, gives out coins and provides them with lodging. He also takes care of prisoners and frees them during the night.

§ 13: One month and 16 days later, Claudius is asked for by Diocletian, who wants to know about Susanna. As Claudius tells him that he is ill, Diocletian sends Claudius’ own brother Maximus, comes rei priuatae, to go and speak to him about Susanna. Maximus finds Claudius praying in a goat’s hair tunic (in cilicio) and is afraid. He asks him how come he is so thin. Claudius says he will tell him, if Maximus will hear him out. Maximus embraces him and ask Claudius to tell him why his body seems so wretched. Claudius remarks that he is doing penance for having followed the emperors’ command and killed Christian saints.

§ 14: Maximus tells Claudius that what really matters is that he has been sent by Diocletian to arrange the marriage of Maximian with Susanna. Claudius tells him that he had asked Susanna, but found that she had been dedicated to God, through whom his sins have now been redeemed. He exhorts Maximus to come at night to Gabinius’ house to learn that God can save all and to see the eternal light. Maximus agrees.

§ 15: The same night they go to the arch at the porta Salaria, near the palace of Sallust, where Gabinius lives. It is announced to Gabinius that Claudius and his brother Maximus wish to greet him. Gabinius has them admitted to his house. As they enter, Gabinius tells them to pray and they all throw themselves to the ground. Gabinius prays to the Lord God for all who believe in him to be enlightened. All reply ‘Amen’. Then they get up, and embrace and kiss each other.

§ 16: Claudius joyfully kisses Gabinius’ feet. Maximus asks to see Susanna. Gabinius enters her room and calls her; she comes out offering prayers and asks her father to give the blessing. Gabinius prays, and all reply ‘Amen’. Seeing the extent of Susanna’s humility and modesty, Maximus grabs her hand and kisses it, but she despises this.

§ 17: Then Maximus is announced to the bishop Gaius, who lives near a church built by himself near the palace of Sallust, he comes forth, hoping to be soon called to martyrdom. When he arrives, all fall on the floor. Gaius says that they should keep their resolve and gives a prayer, asking to be freed from the darkness of the world and to keep faith. All reply ‘Amen’. Then they all sit down to hear Gaius speak, save for Susanna who prefers to remain standing and praying.

§ 18: Then Gaius gives thanks that Maximus has come to visit them. As Maxim
Evidence -  The Cult of Saints in Late Antiquity

Categories

History

Evidence ID

E02515

Saint Name

Susanna, virgin and martyr of Rome : S00892 Gaius, bishop and martyr of Rome : S00661 Claudius, his wife Praepedigna and sons Alexander and Cutia, and his brother Maximus, martyrs of Rome : S01440

Saint Name in Source

Susanna Caius Claudius, Praepedigna, Alexander, Cutia, Maximus

Type of Evidence

Literary - Hagiographical - Accounts of martyrdom

Language

Latin

Evidence not before

450

Evidence not after

750

Activity not before

285

Activity not after

305

Place of Evidence - Region

Rome and region

Place of Evidence - City, village, etc

Rome

Place of evidence - City name in other Language(s)

Rome Rome Rome Roma Ῥώμη Rhōmē

Cult activities - Liturgical Activity

  • Service for the Saint

Cult activities - Festivals

  • Saint’s feast

Cult activities - Places

Cult building - independent (church)

Cult activities - Activities Accompanying Cult

  • Meetings and gatherings of the clergy

Cult activities - Non Liturgical Practices and Customs

Prayer/supplication/invocation

Cult Activities - Miracles

Observed scarcity/absence of miracles Apparition, vision, dream, revelation Miraculous sound, smell, light Miracles experienced by the saint Power over objects

Cult Activities - Protagonists in Cult and Narratives

Women Ecclesiastics - bishops Ecclesiastics - lesser clergy Pagans Relatives of the saint Monarchs and their family Soldiers Aristocrats Officials Slaves/ servants Angels

Cult Activities - Relics

Bodily relic - entire body Bodily relic - blood Contact relic - cloth Ampullae, eulogiai, tokens Making contact relics Touching and kissing relics

Cult Activities - Cult Related Objects

Precious cloths Ampullae, flasks, etc.

Source

Epic martyrdoms The Martyrdom of Susanna is an anonymous literary account of martyrdom written long after the great persecutions of Christians that provide the background of the narrative. It is part of a widely spread literary genre, that scholars often designate as "epic" Martyrdoms (or Passiones), to be distinguished from earlier, short and more plausible accounts, apparently based on the genuine transcripts of the judicial proceedings against the martyrs. These texts narrate the martyrdom of local saints, either to promote a new cult or to give further impulse to existing devotion. They follow widespread stereotypes mirroring the early authentic trials of martyrs, but with a much greater degree of detail and in a novelistic style. Thus they narrate how the protagonists are repeatedly questioned and tortured under the order of officials or monarchs, because they refuse to sacrifice to pagan gods but profess the Christian faith. They frequently refer to miracles performed by the martyrs and recreate dialogues between the protagonists. The narrative generally ends with the death of the martyrs (often by beheading) and their burial. These texts are literary creations bearing a degree of freedom in the narration of supposedly historical events, often displaying clear signs of anachronism. For these reasons, they have been generally dismissed as historical evidence and often remain little known. However, since most certainly date from within the period c. 400-800, often providing unique references to cult, they are an essential source to shed light on the rise of the cult of saints. The Martyrdom of Susanna There is one main, widespread and early, version of the Martyrdom, BHL 7937, which is preserved in more than forty manuscripts (there is only another minor variant version, BHL 7937b, attested in Lucca, Biblioteca Capitolare, P+, f. 51v-52r from the 12th century). The earliest manuscript of BHL 7937 is an 8th c. fragment: Rome, Biblioteca Vallicelliana, Carte Vallicelliane XII.2, while the earliest complete manuscripts are from the 9th-10th centuries: Brussels, Bibliothèque des Bollandistes, 14, f. 84r-87r (9th-10th c.); Karlsruhe, Badische Landesbibliothek, Aug. XXXII, f. 10v-14r (9th c.); Vienna, ÖNB, lat. 357, f. 158r-165v (9th-10th c.). See the lists of manuscripts in the database Bibliotheca Hagiographica Latina Manuscripta (bhlms.fltr.ucl.ac.be) and Lanéry 2010, 151 n. 313.

Discussion

The Martyrdom was presumably written in Rome, probably for the shrine where Susanna was venerated in the titulus Gai, as is clear from the topographical precision displayed by the author in his description of the location in the regio VI of the house of Pope Gaius, who is clearly identified with the founder of the titulus. According to our Martyrdom and other late antique sources (see S00892), Susanna’s place of veneration was more precisely situated on the Alta Semita, before the forum Sallustii, near the baths of Diocletian, in a place called ad duas domos. It seems plausible that the hagiographer’s description of two brothers, Gaius and Gabinius, and their two houses, where Susanna lived and died, was meant to provide an explanation of this toponym, and of the origins of the titulus Gai. It is generally accepted that the titulus Gai, attested in 499 (E02744), should be identified with the titulus sanctae Susannae attested in 595 (Gregory the Great, Register 5.57: E06362) and in the 7th century (e.g. E01701). Although worthy of note, the fact that the titulus was apparently named after Susanna only in the 6th century does not constitute proof, as underlined by Diefenbach, that her cult only developed at that period. The Martyrdom says that Susanna was buried in a crypt in the cemetery of Alexander iuxta civitatem Figlinas, but there is no other evidence to corroborate this. The Martyrdom was written in Late Antiquity at an uncertain date. It is attested in an 8th century manuscript fragment and used by Ado in his martyrology in the 9th century. Moreover, it should have been composed after around 450 at the earliest, since it made use of the Martyrologium Hieronymianum (the earliest commonly accepted dating of its earliest form being around 450). Indeed, while it is rare to find clear evidence of martyrdom accounts using the Martyrologium, Duchesne has shown that the Martyrdom made use of the entry on 1 October, to create the characters Alexander, Praepidigna and Cutia on the basis of a corrupted entry on that day: see E04973 and Duchesne 1916. Moreover, parallels have been underlined with the martyrdoms of Sebastianus (E02512) and Caecilia (E02519), which can be dated broadly to the 5th and 6th centuries, but which Lanéry more precisely attributes to Arnobius the Younger and places between 430 and 450 (on these parallels and others see Lanzoni, Praet). Narrative contacts with Caecilia’s martyrdom are particularly remarkable, and perhaps relate to the fact that Caecilia, Valerianus and Tiburtius, main characters of that martyrdom account, are found in the Martyrologium Hieronymianum on the same day as Susanna’s (11 August, E04915). As argued by Delehaye, the addition of these characters on Susanna’s feast day probably resulted from the confusion of a Tiburtius venerated on 11 August, with the Tiburtius found in Caecilia’s martyrdom, already venerated with Caecilia on 14 April. Knowing that the hagiographer borrowed from the Martyrologium for other purposes, the fact that these names were attached to Susanna’s makes borrowings from Caecilia’s martyrdom all the more plausible. Lanéry (followed by Lapidge) also suggests, summarising earlier hypotheses, that the Martyrdom should be dated after 450, but before the first edition of the Liber Pontificalis in the 6th century. Indeed, scholars have hypothesised that the first edition of Pope Gaius’ biography (E00392) may have taken the information that Gaius was a relative of Diocletian from the Martyrdom. Nevertheless, it remains uncertain whether there is any contact between the Martyrdom and the biography, since such information about Gaius could have been easily obtained independently. Perhaps more worthy of note is the fact that the first edition of the biography and the Martyrdom do not present Gaius as a martyr, in contrast to the second edition (around 550, see again E00392), which also states that Gaius had a brother, Gabinius, whose daughter was named Susanna. It is thus possible that the author of the Martyrdom wrote before 550, when the Liber Pontificalis may have made use of it for its description of Gaius’ family, and when it first described him as a martyr in contrast to previous sources.

Bibliography

Editions (BHL 7937): Mombritius, B., Sanctuarium seu vitae sanctorum, 2 vols. with additions and corrections by A. Brunet and H. Quentin (Paris, 1910), II, 553-559. The original edition was published c. 1480. Acta Sanctorum, Febr. III, 61-64 and Aug., II, 631-632. Translation: Lapidge, M., The Roman Martyrs: Introduction, Translations, and Commentary (Oxford, 2018), 272-286. Further reading: Acta Sanctorum, Nov. II: Pars posterior qua continetur Hippolyti Delehaye Commentarius perpetuus in Martyrologium Hieronymianum ad recensionem Henrici Quentin O. S. B. (Brussels, 1931): 11 August. Diefenbach, S., Römische Errinnerungsräume: Heiligenmemoria und kollektive Identitäten im Rom des 3 bis 5. Jahrhunderts n. Chr, (Berlin-New York, 2007), 338-341. Duchesne, L., “Les légendes de l’Alta Semita”, Mélanges d’archéologie et d’histoire 36 (1916), 27-56, esp. 33-42. Lanéry, C., "Hagiographie d'Italie (300-550). I. Les Passions latines composées en Italie”, in: Philippart, G. (ed.), Hagiographies. Histoire internationale de la littérature hagiographique latine et vernaculaire en Occident des origines à 1550, vol. V (Turnhout, 2010), 15-369, at 148-154 (with further bibliography). Lanzoni, F., “I titoli presbiterali di Roma antica nella storia e nella leggenda”, Rivista di archeologia cristiana, 2 (1925), 228-257. Lapidge, M., The Roman Martyrs: Introduction, Translations, and Commentary (Oxford, 2018), 270-272. Praet, D., “Susanna, the Fathers and the Passio Sereni (BHL 7595-6): Sexual Morals, Intertextuality and Early Christian Self-Definition”, Journal of Ancient Christianity 14:3 (2010), 556-580.

Continued Description

us says that he does not deserve thanks, since he comes for a reason that Gaius knows well, Gaius’ asks him to explain everything. Maximus tells them that he came to see them because Diocletian wants Susanna to marry his [the emperor’s] adoptive son Maximian. Gaius states that Susanna has already taken Christ as her husband from Almighty God. Maximus replies that whatever is given by God shall last forever.§ 19: Gaius exhorts Maximus to receive eternal life; Maximus ask what that is, Claudius tells that he knows it, and Maximus is eager to know it too, but does not want their family be parted from the emperors. Gaius asks him to believe in Jesus Christ son of God and contrasts worldly and eternal power. Maximus’ receives Gaius’ teaching with joy and wants to be quickly instructed. Gaius commands him to fast and return home.§ 20: Returning home, Maximus tells no one what has happened. In the course of five days, he begins to distribute his wealth to the Christian poor. After the fifth day, cleansed, he goes to Gaius and throws himself at the bishop’s feet, asking him not to delay in enlightening him, since he feels repentance in his heart (compunctio cordis) from the day he was instructed. Gaius tells him to turn his heart towards Jesus Christ; Maximus begs Gaius and Gabinius to save his soul and take him away from the darkness of the devotion to idols and bring him to the true light. Gaius asks Maximus if he believes with all his heart, renounces pomps and the messengers of the Devil. Maximus replies that he has renounced them and wants to follow Gaius’ example. He is initiated (catechizare) by Gabinius, then baptised and anointed with the chrism by Gaius, who celebrates the Eucharist; all take part to it. They then start all living together, chanting with joy.§ 21: Maximus sells his belongings at night through the agency of his friend Thrason, christianissimus togatus, who was secretly devoted to the Christian religion, and had been baptised many years before by Gaius, and who extolled the deeds of the holy martyrs (gesta sanctorum martyrum), and every night gave money to the Christian poor, going around the streets and the prisons.§ 22: Fifteen days later, rumour about Maximus reaches Maximian from a certain pagan called Arsicius, who was a helper (adiutor) of the Comes rei privatae, whence it was passed on to Diocletian. The emperor presses Arsicius on the matter, and Arsicius reports that Maximus is giving away all his goods, and has been made a Christian by Gaius and Gabinius. Hearing this, and keeping it to himself, Diocletian tells his wife Serena about it. Serena is comforted and gives thanks to God, for she is a closet Christian too. She tells Diocletian to do what has been ordered to him by a higher authority.§ 23: Diocletian, now holding his wife in contempt, summons a cruel pagan called Iulius and tells him about the conversion of his relatives. Iulius suggests that they should be punished. Diocletian gives Iulius command of some soldiers, so that they should arrest all the Christians, except Gaius. They arrest Gabinius, Susanna, and Claudius and his family, who are then sent to the city of Comos, where it is ordered that they be burned. Then Claudius, Praepedigna, Alexander and Maximus are thrown into the sea at Ostia [there seems to be some contradictory information or an issue in the text about the location of their martyrdom]. Gabinius and Susanna are thrown in prison.§ 24 [1]: Some 55 days later Diocletian orders his wife Serena to summon Susanna, so that she might bend her beliefs. When Susanna sees soldiers come for her she prays to the Lord, asking not to be abandoned by him. She is brought to Serena, and immediately prostrates herself in front of her; Serena tells her to rejoice in Christ the Lord, which indicates to Susanna that Serena is a Christian. She thanks God and remains with Serena for many days, during which she never ceases to offer prayers and chants to the Lord. But Diocletian, still hoping that Serena will persuade Susanna to marry Maximian, sends a message to Serena by the familiaris Curtius, asking her to make efforts in order to bring Susanna to marry Maximian. However Serena replies to Curtius that she cannot discern any love in the girl for Maximian, and indeed the girl tearfully prays and sings psalms all night, just as her father Gabinius did. This is announced to Diocletian.§ 25 [2.]: Diocletian, irate at this revelation, summons Maximian, and demands that Susanna be sent to Gabinius’ house, saying that she ought not to defile the imperial palace. Serena tells Diocletian that she hopes that he will be freed and helped by the One who freed Susanna. Susanna returns to her home in the company of two women and, on arriving there she throws herself on the floor and prays to Jesus Christ. That night, Maximian enters Susanna’s room, where she is praying. An angel of the Lord appears over her; seeing this, Maximian is terrified, does not touch her and flees to the imperial palace, where he tells Diocletian what has happened. Diocletian suspects that magic is at work, and sends Curtius – a little apprehensive on account of the magic – to question her.§ 26 [3.]: Then Diocletian seeks out his wife Serena: they argue about the advent of Christ, and the worship of idols. Then he demands to know of her what she has done to ensure that Susanna will not marry Maximian. She says that Susanna has chosen something better than Maximian: the eternal light, just as Maximian related to them. Diocletian is furious, and sends to a dreadful pagan, Macedonius, ordering him to secure sacrifice from Susanna.§ 27 [4.]: Macedonius goes to her house in the regio Sallustii, and begins to cajole her towards offering sacrifice on the altar before a statue of Jupiter. Instead, Susanna blows at the idol, kneels and prays to the Lord asking not to see the idols but to be comforted. Macedonius orders her to get up and adore the god. Susanna looks towards the sky and immediately the statue disappears. Macedonius thinks that she has stolen it and thus shown her love for the gods. However she signs herself on the chest and says that the Lord took it away to avoid her eyes being polluted.§ 28 [5.]: At this point one of Macedonius’ slaves arrives, bearing news that the golden statue of Jupiter in the square before the palace of Sallust has been thrown down. Macedonius is furious, and with his own hands he strips her and beats her with cudgels. Susanna, however, remains joyful and offers praises to God. Macedonius advises her to offer sacrifice, but she, signing herself on her chest, says that she offers herself as a sacrifice to her God. Macedonius reports all this to Diocletian, as well as the news about the statue of Jupiter, smashed and toppled in the square. Diocletian orders that she be killed by the sword by the house of bishop Gaius; there, pierced by the sword, she gives up her soul.§ 29 [6.]: When she hears this, Serena, filled with joy, goes to collect Susanna’s body at night, as well as her blood which gushed out in that place, which she soaks up with her veil and places in a silver casket in the palace; here, by day and night, she does not cease from offering prayers. The body itself she embalms with her own hands with perfume and linen cloth, and buries near the bodies of the saints in the cemetery of Alexander in Arenario, in the crypt beside saint Alexander, iuxta civitas Figlinae, on the 3rd day of the Ides of August [= 11 August; Mombritius has the following note added: ‘the feast of Tiburtius in the cemetery ad duos lauros on the via Labicana, and Chrysantus and Daria and Susanna on the via Salaria’]. From that day, the bishop Gaius enters the house where she was killed and offers services in commemoration (commemoratio) of her. The two houses of Gabinius and Gaius were joined together, and from that time up to this day, used as a place of worship (statio) called ‘ad duas domos’. This happened in the sixth region of the city of Rome, near the vicus Mammurtini [variants have: Mammuri], in front of the forum of Sallust.Text: Acta Sanctorum, Febr. III, 61-64 and Aug., II, 631-632. M. Humphries, The Roman Martyrs Project, Manchester University; adapted and expanded by M. Pignot.

Licence

Exports

Evidence -  The Cult of Saints in Late Antiquity

Categories

Licence

Exports