Saint NameBabylas, bishop and martyr in Antioch, and his companions, ob. late 3rd c. : S00061
Three Children, martyrs of Antioch : S00319
Saint Name in SourceBabylas
Type of EvidenceLiterary - Hagiographical - Accounts of martyrdom
Evidence not before400
Evidence not after650
Activity not before283
Activity not after284
Cult activities - Non Liturgical Practices and CustomsComposing and translating saint-related texts
Cult Activities - Protagonists in Cult and NarrativesEcclesiastics - bishops
SourceBHL 889 is transmitted in numerous manuscripts. BHLms (http://bhlms.fltr.ucl.ac.be/) lists 45, the earliest dating from the 8th/9th century (Turin, BN D. V. 3, 153r-157r).
Two other Latin versions of the Martyrdom of Babylas are listed in BHL. One of these, BHL 890, is simply another recension of 889, with minor variants. The other, BHL 891, is also based on BHL 890, but is significantly reworked: while the narrative is the same, the language is much more elevated and rhetorically ambitious. The dialogues in particular are rewritten to make them more dramatic. The date of BHL 891 is unclear; according to BHLms no surviving manuscript of it dates from earlier than the 12th century.
DiscussionThe Latin version of the Martyrdom of Babylas must have been in circulation by the late 7th century, since it was used as a source by Aldhelm in his prose On Virginity (E06566). Verbal parallels show that Aldhelm was using BHL 889, or a version of the text very close to it. For example, when Numerian asks Babylas whether the three boys are his sons, his reply in Aldhelm closely follows that in BHL 889:
Secundum Deum filii mei sunt. Mulierem vero non noui.
Filii mei vere sunt secundum Deum. Mulierem autem coram Deo meo non cognovi, ex quo natum.
By contrast, the reply in BHL 891 is quite different (this is also a representative illustration of the difference in style between BHL 889 and 891):
Filii mei sunt educationis labore et amoris affectu, ceterum concubitum feminei sexus ignoro.
Acta Sanctorum, Ian. II, 571-573 (BHL 889).
Acta Sanctorum, Ian. II, 573-576 (BHL 891).