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E01680: Greek building inscription for an oratory (eukterion), dedicated to *Sergios (soldier and martyr of Rusafa, S00023), possibly in a fortress. Found at Salamiye (ancient Salamias, to the northeast of Ḥimṣ/Emesa, north Phoenicia Libanensis). Perhaps mid-6th-7th c.

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posted on 29.06.2016, 00:00 by pnowakowski
[ἐν ὀνόματι τῆς] Ἁγίας Τριά(δος)
[γέγο]νε τὸ ἀλη[θ]άργητον κτίσ-
[μα κα]ὶ τὸ ἐν αὐτῷ εὐκτήριον
[τοῦ] ἁγίου καὶ καλλιν<ί>κου μάρ-
[τυρ]ος Σεργίου ἐκ θεμελίων

2. ΕΤΟΜ [- - -] ΑΡΤΗΤΟΝ Hartmann, αλ[- - -]ητον = ἀ<ν>[αμ]άρτητον (?) Lucas (von Oppenheim) IGLS || ̣α̣λι-αργητον = ἀλη[θ]άργητον Robert Prentice, ἀλ[ηθάρ]γητον Decourt || 3-4. ΕΝ|ΑΓΙΟΥ = ἐναγίου Hartmann, ΑΓΙΟΥ = ἁγίου other editors, [το]ῦ ἁγίου Decourt || 4. ΚΑΛΛΙΝΙΚΟΥ Decourt Hartmann Lucas, ΚΑΛΛΙΝΚΟΥ Prentice IGLS Robert

'In the name of the Holy Trinity. This everlasting (?) building (ktisma) and the oratory (eukterion) of the holy and gloriously triumphant martyr Sergios, which is inside it, were constructed from foundations.'

Text: Robert 1960, 352.

History

Evidence ID

E01680

Saint Name

Sergios, martyr in Syria, ob. 303-311 : S00023

Saint Name in Source

Σέργιος

Type of Evidence

Inscriptions - Formal inscriptions (stone, mosaic, etc.)

Language

Greek

Evidence not before

550

Evidence not after

700

Activity not before

550

Activity not after

700

Place of Evidence - Region

Syria with Phoenicia Syria with Phoenicia

Place of Evidence - City, village, etc

Ḥimṣ/Emesa Salamias

Place of evidence - City name in other Language(s)

Ḥimṣ/Emesa Thabbora Thabbora Salamias Thabbora Thabbora

Cult activities - Places

Cult building - dependent (chapel, baptistery, etc.)

Cult activities - Places Named after Saint

  • Towns, villages, districts and fortresses

Cult activities - Non Liturgical Practices and Customs

Construction of cult buildings

Source

A fragmentary stone, broken and lost on top. Preserved dimensions: H. 0.41 m; W. 1.87 m. Dimensions of the inscribed field: H. 0.33 m; W. 0.77 m; letter height 0.035-0.04 m. The inscription is within a tabula ansata. To the right of the tabula there is a carving of a cross within a circle, the letters Α and Ω (inverted), and remnants of another framed field. Seen and copied by Martin Hartmann on 21 May 1887 at Salamiye (ancient Salamias). When recorded the stone was reused in the jamb of the doorway of a garden, in the northwest part of the city. Revisited by Max von Oppenheim, who forwarded his copy (squeeze) to Hans Lucas, and by William Prentice. The copy published by Hartmann was of very poor quality with various erroneous readings, which we do not reproduce in full in the apparatus. In 2002 the stone was seen by Jean-Claude Decourt during his survey of Salamias, and was republished by him in 2010. Decourt notes that the stone is reused in a house in the modern city, and that only lines 4-5 are legible.

Discussion

The inscription commemorates the construction of an oratory dedicated to Sergios. This is a rare case, where it is explicitly said that the oratory was not an independent place of cult, but a chapel or chamber inside another structure (here named simply ktisma/'building'). We can suppose that this chapel was a martyr shrine, designed for the veneration of relics of the saint. Denis Feissel believes that the main building (the ktisma) was the fortress mentioned in E01946. He suggests that the founder of that building, stressing the fact that he was a namesake of the saint, could also be the builder of the present oratory. For a very similar formula (a ktisma built 'in the name of the God-Bearer'), see E01944. The epithet, used in line 2 to describe the whole building, is partially lost. Martin Hartmann, the first editor, did not attempt to reconstruct it. Hans Lucas, based on von Oppenheim's squeeze, supposed that the adjective should be read as ἀναμάρτητον/'blameless, undefiled'. This reading, however, requires a serious editorial intervention and does not agree with the later copy, made by William Prentice. Prentice read this term as ἀληθάργητον and translated it as 'of continual service'. Surprisingly, the editors of Les inscriptions grecques et latines de la Syrie rejected his reading, arguing that “such an adjective would fit the akoimetai monks rather than a building”. We prefer to follow the suggestion of Prentice, as it is based on his good quality copy, and was further elaborated by Louis Robert. The latter convincingly showed that the term belonged to the vocabulary of late antique dedicatory inscriptions, and could also be used as an epithet for magnificent buildings, probably in the meaning 'unforgettable' or 'everlasting', see: Robert 1960, 356. Dating: Hartmann dated the inscription to the mid-6th-7th c. based on the contents and the form of letters. Other editors do not discuss the dating. It is possible, Hartman says, that the frame to the right of our inscription contained the name of the founder and the date, expressed as a local era year. A date between 430-431 has been suggested based on an unjustified connection of our text with a dated colonnette from Salamias, but it is rightly refuted by Elisabeth Key-Fowden (1999, 113).

Bibliography

Edition: Decourt, J.-Cl., "Inscriptions grecques de Salamya/Salamias", in: P.-L. Gatier, B. Geyer, M.-O. Rousset (eds.), Entre nomades et sédentaires. Prospections en Syrie du Nord et en Jordanie du Sud (Travaux de la Maison de l'Orient et de la Méditerranée 55; Conquête de la steppe 3, Lyon: Maison de l'Orient et de la Méditerranée, 2010), 115-116, no. 6. Robert, L., “Recherches épigraphiques”, Revue des études anciennes 62 (1960), 354-356. Jalabert, L., Mouterde, R., Mondésert, C., Les inscriptions grecques et latines de la Syrie, vol. 5: Émésène (BAH 66, Paris: P. Guethner, 1959), no. 2530. Prentice, W.K. (ed.), Greek and Latin inscriptions (Publications of an American archaeological expedition to Syria in 1899-1900 3, New York: Century 1908), 242, no. 300. Lucas, H., "Griechische und lateinische Inschriften aus Syrien, Mesopotamien und Kleinasien", Byzantinische Zeitschrift 14 (1905), 26, no. 10. Hartmann, M., "Beiträge zur Kenntniss der Syrischen Steppe (Schluss)", Zeitschrift des Deutschen Palästina-Vereins 23 (1901), 109-110. Further reading: Key Fowden, E., The Barbarian Plain: St. Sergius between Rome and Iran (Berkeley, Calif.; London: University of California Press, 1999), 113. Reference works: Bulletin épigraphique (2011), 600. Supplementum Epigraphicum Graecum 20, 383; 60, 1687, 1697.

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