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E01526: The early 5th c. Syriac Martyrology commemorates on 1 August the martyrdom of the *Maccabean Martyrs (pre-Christian Jewish martyrs of Antioch, S00303), of Xystus, most likely *Xystus II (bishop and martyr of Rome, S00201), and of *Philippos (martyr of Nicomedia, S01057) and his four companions.

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posted on 07.06.2016, 00:00 by sminov
ܒܝܪܚ ܐܒܝ ܒܚܕ ܒܝܪܚܐ ܒܕܝܘ̈ܢܝܐ ܡܘ̈ܕܝܢܐ ܕܗܘܘ ܡܢ ܗܢܘܢ ܕܣܝܡܝܢ ܒܐܢܛܘܟܝܐ. ܗ̇ܢܘ ܕܝܢ ܒܩܪܛܝܐ ܕܐܝܬܝܗܘܢ ܒܢ̈ܝܗ̇ ܕܫܡܘܢܝ. ܗ̇ܢܘܢ ܕܟܬܝܒܝܢ ܒܡܩ̈ܒܝܐ. ܘܒܗ ܒܝܘܡܐ ܗܢܐ ܕܘܟܪܢܗ ܕܐܟܣܝܛܘܤ ܐܦܣܩܘܦܐ ܕܪܗܘܡܐ ܘܒܢܝܩܘܡܕܝܐ ܦܝܠܝܦܘܤ ܘܐܚܖ̈ܢܐ ܐܖ̈ܒܥܐ.

'On the first (day) of the month of Ab (i.e. August), according to (the reckoning of) the Greeks, – the martyrs, who were from those that were interred at Antioch, that is to say in Kerateion, who were the sons of Šamūnī, mentioned in (the book of) the Maccabees; and on the same day, the commemoration of Xystus, bishop of Rome, and at Nicomedia, Philippos and four others.'

Ed. Nau 1912, p. 19; trans. S. Minov.

History

Evidence ID

E01526

Saint Name

Maccabean Brothers, 2nd-century BC Jewish martyrs in Antioch : S00303 Xystus II, martyr and bishop of Rome, ob. c. 258 : S00201 Philippos, martyr in Nicomedia : S01057

Saint Name in Source

ܒܢ̈ܝܗ̇ ܕܫܡܘܢܝ ܐܟܣܝܛܘܤ ܦܝܠܝܦܘܤ

Type of Evidence

Liturgical texts - Calendars and martyrologies

Language

Syriac

Evidence not before

411

Evidence not after

412

Activity not before

360

Activity not after

411

Place of Evidence - Region

Mesopotamia

Place of Evidence - City, village, etc

Edessa

Place of evidence - City name in other Language(s)

Edessa Edessa Edessa Ἔδεσσα Edessa

Major author/Major anonymous work

Syriac Martyrology of 411

Cult activities - Festivals

  • Saint’s feast

Source

The Syriac Martyrology of the year 411 is the earliest liturgical calendar preserved in Syriac. It appears in the manuscript BL Add. 12150. The manuscript's colophon relates that it was produced in the city of Edessa in the year 411. Composed during the last decades of the fourth or the first decade of the fifth century, the Martyrology is divided into the two main sections - the main one, devoted to the Christian martyrs of the Roman empire, and the shorter one, devoted to the Christians executed in the Sasanian empire. The former section is derived from a lost Greek martyrology. For more information, see E00465 Syriac text: Wright 1865-1866; Nau 1912, pp. 11-26; Brock and van Rompay 2014, pp. 389-392; English translation: Wright 1865-1866, pp. 423-432; French translation: Nau 1912, pp. 11-26; German translation: Lietzmann 1903, pp. 9-16; Latin translation: Mariani 1956. For general information, see Taylor 2012, pp. 80-81; Schäferdiek 2005.

Discussion

The Martyrology provides the earliest evidence for the liturgical commemoration of the Maccabean Brothers as well as of the martyrs Xystus and Philippos among Syriac-speaking Christians.

Bibliography

Main editions and translations: Brock, S.P., and van Rompay, L., Catalogue of the Syriac Manuscripts and Fragments in the Library of Deir al-Surian, Wadi al-Natrun (Egypt) (Orientalia Lovaniensia Analecta 227; Leuven: Peeters, 2014). Lietzmann, H., Die drei ältesten Martyrologien (Kleine Texte für Theologische Vorlesungen und Übungen 2; Bonn: A. Marcus und E. Weber, 1903). Mariani, B., Breviarium syriacum seu martyrologium syriacum saec. IV (Rerum ecclesiasticarum documenta, Series minor: Subsidia studiorum 3; Roma: Herder, 1956). Nau, F., Martyrologes et ménologes orientaux, I–XIII. Un martyrologie et douze ménologes syriaques édités et traduits (Patrologia Orientalis 10.1 [46]; Paris: Firmin-Didot, 1912). Wright, W., “An Ancient Syriac Martyrology,” Journal of Sacred Literature and Biblical Record NS VIII, 15 (1865), 45-56; 16 (1866), 423-432. Further reading: Schäferdiek, K., “Bemerkungen zum Martyrologium Syriacum,” Analecta Bollandiana 123:1 (2005), 5-22. Taylor, D.G.K., “Hagiographie et liturgie syriaque,” in: A. Binggeli (ed.), L’hagiographie syriaque (Études syriaques 9; Paris: Paul Geuthner, 2012), 77-112.

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