Saint NameUnnamed martyrs (or name lost) : S00060
Image Caption 1Preserved fragments of the mosaic floor with inscriptions 2 and 3. From: Candemir & Wagner 1978, Textabbildung 2.
Image Caption 2Inscriptions 2 and 3. From: Candemir & Wagner 1978, Textabbildung 2.
Image Caption 4Inscription 1. From: Wagner 1976, plate 7.
Type of EvidenceInscriptions - Formal inscriptions (stone, mosaic, etc.)
Archaeological and architectural - Cult buildings (churches, mausolea)
Evidence not before400
Evidence not after600
Activity not before400
Activity not after600
Place of Evidence - RegionSyria with Phoenicia
Place of Evidence - City, village, etcAşaği Çardak
Place of evidence - City name in other Language(s)Aşaği Çardak
Cult activities - PlacesCult building - unspecified
Cult activities - Non Liturgical Practices and CustomsPrayer/supplication/invocation
Cult Activities - Protagonists in Cult and NarrativesEcclesiastics - bishops
Other lay individuals/ people
SourceA floor-mosaic made of white, yellow, green, red, blue, and black pebbles. Surface: c. 40 m2. When recorded, the mosaic lay 2 m under ground. By 1976 two large sections of the mosaic were unearthed, revealing three inscriptions and plant and animal decorations: a peacock, a dove, and a grapevine ornament.
Inscription 1 is within a tabula ansata, in the upper left corner of the floor. H. 0.23 m; W. 0.73 m; letter height 0.055-0.058 m. The depiction of the peacock is placed below it.
Inscriptions 2 and 3 are sited at the right-hand edge of the floor and accompanied by the grapevine ornament and the dove inside a lozenge. Letter height 0.055-0.058 m.
The floor was found in 1971 by Hansgard Hellenkemper and Jörg Wagner near the village of Aşaği Çardak. Its existence implies that an extramural martyr shrine (martyrion) was once sited there. Hellenkemper and Wagner recorded only the remains of its foundations, and a cubic block, probably deriving from the structure.
DiscussionThe inscriptions commemorated the construction of the sanctuary, in which the mosaic was located. Inscription 1 says that the building was completed under bishop Sabinos, but his identity, and therefore, the date of the completion, escape us. The editors point out that bishops bearing this name are attested on council lists of the nearby cities: Ourima and Zeugma.
Inscriptions 2 and 3 are only partially preserved, but their phrasing suggests that they contained the names of donors, who funded the construction or the embellishment of the shrine.
Unfortunately none of these texts gives us the name of the martyr venerated here.
Candemir, H., Wagner, J., “Christliche Mosaiken in der nördlichen Euphratesia” [in:] Şahin, S., Schwertheim, E., Wagner, J. (eds.), Studien zur Religion und Kultur Kleinasiens: Festschrift für Friedrich Karl Dörner zum 65. Geburtstag am 28. Februar 1976, vol. 1 (Etudes préliminaires aux religions orientales dans l'Empire romain 66, Leiden: Brill, 1978), 210-211.
Wagner, J., Seleukia am Euphrat-Zeugma (Beihefte zum Tübinger Atlas des Vorderen Orients. Reihe B, Geisteswissenschaften 10, Wiesbaden: Reichert, 1976), 111.
Aylward, W., "The rescue excavations at Zeugma in 2000", in: W. Aylward (ed.), Excavations at Zeugma, Conducted by Oxford University (Los Altos, California: The Packard Humanities Institute, 2013), 28 (mentioned). See https://zeugma.packhum.org/
Kennedy, D. L., The Twin Towns of Zeugma on the Euphrates. Rescue Work and Historical Studies (Portsmouth, RI : Journal of Roman Archaeology, 1998), 53, note 35 (mentioned).
Bulletin épigraphique (1979), 603.
Supplementum Epigraphicum Graecum 26, 1491-1493.