File(s) not publicly available

E00786: Greek graffiti from the church of *John the Apostle and Evangelist (S00042) in Ephesos (western Asia Minor) with numerous invocations of this saint. 6th c. or later.

online resource
posted on 15.10.2015, 00:00 by pnowakowski
1) Fragment of the top bar of a screen of blue marble, located between the altar and the pulpit in the church of *John the Evangelist in Ephesos. Preserved dimensions: H. 0.12 m; W. 0.447 m; Th. 0.208 m. Inscription A is written on the upper surface with neatly carved letters. Texts B, C, D are graffiti. Josef Keil suspected that the inscription could cover other nearby blocks too.

A: [κύριε, βοήθησον] τῷ ταπινῷ διακό(νῳ) καὶ δούλῳ [σῷ - - -
B: + ἅγ(ι)ε Ἰω(άννη), βοήθη τὼν σὸν δοῦλον Λάζαρον
C: + ἅγιε Ἰω(άννη) θεο[λόγε, βοήθη - - -
D: + ἅγιε Ἰ[ω(άννη) - - -

A: '[O Lord, help] the humble deacon and [your] servant [- - -]!'
B: '+ Saint John, help your servant Lazaros!'
C: '+ Saint John the Theo[logian, help - - -]!'
D: '+ Saint J[ohn - - -]!'

Text: I. Ephesos, no. 4304.

2) Fragment of an upper plaque of a screen of blue marble. Precise find-spot unknown. Most probably from another structure than the one mentioned in the preceding entry. Preserved dimensions: H. 0.27 m; W. 0.24 m; Th. 0.096 m. Text A was erased and substituted with Text B. Graffito C runs below it. Next to it there are faint traces of yet another graffito.

A: - - -] στ̣ων ̣λ̣α[- - -
̣
λ̣α[- - - or ̣α̣λ[- - - Keil

B: - - -]ῳ πρεσβ[υτέρῳ - - -
C: Ἠοάνι +

B: '[- - - fo]r the presb[yter - - -].'
C: 'For Ioannes (or: for St. John?) +'

3) One of three graffiti written on a column at the middle entrance to the southern side-nave of the church. Next to them there is an inscription with an invocation to God by a certain Georgios, supervisor of construction works.

Ἠ(σοῦ)ς Χ(ριστό)ς, ̣ἅ̣γ(ιος) + Ἰω(άννης)

1. perhaps ̣ἅ̣γ(ιος) or ̣ν̣ι(κᾷ) Keil

'Jesus Christ, Saint + John (?)'

Text: I. Ephesos, no. 4310C.

4) Inscription on a column, written on both sides of an elaborately carved cross (c. 0.45 m high), standing on an sphere and three steps, which strongly resembles depictions of the cross potent on coins issued by the emperor Heraclius (610-641) and later emperors. Almost certainly postdates the 7th c.


θεολόγε, βοεί-

θι τοῦ σοῦ δού-
λου Σισι- νήου
κὲ τῖς μ- ιτρὸς αὐτοῦ

'O Theologian, help your servant Sisinnios and his mother!'

Text: I. Ephesos, no. 4314.

5) Inscription and graffito on a column. The inscription is written on both sides of a carved cross (c. 0.42 m high). The graffito was placed to the left of the lower part of the cross.

A: inscription written written on both sides of a carved cross:

+ θεολό- γε, βοΐθι

ου
τοῦ σοῦ δούλ- Στεφάνου
ἁμαρ- τολοῦ

B: graffito; to the left of the lower part of the cross:

θεολόγε, βοήθησον ἀμίν
τὸν δοῦλον τοῦ θεοῦ Ο-
ΣΟΝΤΟΛΟΝ ἐν ἁμαρτήᾳ· σολην(ο-)
ποηός. ἁμαρτήα ..α

2-3. Ο|ΣΟΝΤΟΛΟΝ = Ὀσοντολον (a name?) Keil, or <ἁ|μάρ>τολον (?) || 3-4. σολην(ο)|ποηός = σωλην(ο)|ποιός (?) Foss

A: '+ O Theologian, help your servant, Stephanos the sinner!'
B: ' O Theologian, help the servant of God Osontolos (or: help the servant of God, the sinful one?) who is in sins, the pipe-maker! (?) Sins [- - -].'

Text: I. Ephesos, no. 4315.

6) Inscription engraved on the back side of a blue marble cornice-plaque.

τõ ἁγ(ίου) Ἰωάν(νου)

1. τõ ἁγ(ίῳ) Ἰωάν(νῃ ?) Halkin

'Of Saint John (or: For Saint John).'

Text: I. Ephesos, no. 4317.

7) Graffiti on the wall and columns near a holy water font in the church.

A:

κ(ύρι)ε, κ(ύριε), ἅγηε θεολόγε, βοήθησον
τοῦ δούλο σου Γεόργηον

E:
εν
θεολόγε αὐθο
τα [- - -] +
κ(ύρι)ε βοήθι κ(ύρι)ε
κ(ύρι)ε βοήθ(η) τὸν δοῦλον σου Ἠοά(ννην)

1-3. αὐθ{ο}έντα (?) Keil

H:
+ κ(ύρι)ε σὺ ὁ θ(εὸ)ς ὁ σ(ωτὴ)ρ ἡμõν
κ(αὶ) ἅγιε Εἰω(άννη) εὐαγελησ-
τὰ αὐτοῦ κ(αὶ) θεολόγε
βοήθη μι τῷ δ(ο)ύλοͺ σου
ἁμαρτολῷ Ν(ι)κόλαον

κ(ύρι)ε βοήθη κ(αὶ) τ(ὴν) δ(ο)ύλ(ην) σου
Μάρθαν μοναχήν

A: 'O Lord, Lord, (and) the holy Theologian, help your servant Georgios!'
E: 'O Theologian [- - -] O Lord, help, O Lord. O Lord, help your servant Ioannes!'
H: '+ O Lord, you are God, our Saviour and (you), Saint Jo(hn), are his Evangelist and the Theologian, help me, your servant and sinner, Nikolaos! Lord, help also your servant Martha, the nun!'

Text: I. Ephesos, no. 4318 A-E-H.

History

Evidence ID

E00786

Saint Name

John the Evangelist : S00042

Type of Evidence

Inscriptions - Graffiti Archaeological and architectural - Cult buildings (churches, mausolea)

Language

Greek

Evidence not before

500

Evidence not after

1300

Activity not before

500

Activity not after

1300

Place of Evidence - Region

Asia Minor

Place of Evidence - City, village, etc

Ephesus

Place of evidence - City name in other Language(s)

Ephesus Nicomedia Νικομήδεια Nikomēdeia Izmit Πραίνετος Prainetos Nicomedia

Cult activities - Places

Cult building - independent (church)

Cult activities - Non Liturgical Practices and Customs

Prayer/supplication/invocation

Cult Activities - Protagonists in Cult and Narratives

Ecclesiastics - lesser clergy Other lay individuals/ people Women Ecclesiastics - monks/nuns/hermits Merchants and artisans Foreigners (including Barbarians)

Discussion

These graffiti certainly postdate the rebuilding of the church of *John the Evangelist by Justinian (527-565) but, unfortunately, there is no way to precisely date them. Some of them could be created much later, even in the middle Byzantine period.

Bibliography

Edition: 1) Die Inschriften von Ephesos, no. 4304. Keil, J. (ed.), Forschungen in Ephesos, vol. 4/3: Die Johanneskirche (Baden: Verlag Rohrer, 1951), no. 4. 2) Die Inschriften von Ephesos, no. 4305. Keil, J. (ed.), Forschungen in Ephesos, vol. 4/3: Die Johanneskirche (Baden: Verlag Rohrer, 1951), no. 5. 3) Die Inschriften von Ephesos, no. 4310C. Keil, J. (ed.), Forschungen in Ephesos, vol. 4/3: Die Johanneskirche (Baden: Verlag Rohrer, 1951), no. 10. 4) Die Inschriften von Ephesos, no. 4314. Keil, J. (ed.), Forschungen in Ephesos, vol. 4/3: Die Johanneskirche (Baden: Verlag Rohrer, 1951), no. 14. For a photograph, see Toth, I., "Reflections on a period of transformation in early Byzantine epigraphic culture", in: Stavrakos, Ch. (ed.), Inscriptions in the Byzantine and Post-Byzantine History and History of Art. Proceedings of the International Symposium "Inscriptions: Their Contribution to the Byzantine and Post-Byzantine History and History of Art" (Ioannina, June 26-27, 2015) (Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag in Kommission, 2016), 40, fig. 5. 5) Die Inschriften von Ephesos, no. 4315. Keil, J. (ed.), Forschungen in Ephesos, vol. 4/3: Die Johanneskirche (Baden: Verlag Rohrer, 1951), no. 15. 6) Die Inschriften von Ephesos, no. 4317. Keil, J. (ed.), Forschungen in Ephesos, vol. 4/3: Die Johanneskirche (Baden: Verlag Rohrer, 1951), no. 17. 7) Die Inschriften von Ephesos, no. 4318. Keil, J. (ed.), Forschungen in Ephesos, vol. 4/3: Die Johanneskirche (Baden: Verlag Rohrer, 1951), no. 18. Further Reading: Eck, W., "Graffiti an Pilgerorten im spätrömischen Reich”, in: Akten des XII. Internationalen Kongresses für christliche Archäologie. Bonn 22.ß28. September 1991 (Jahrbuch für Antike und Christentum Ergänzungsband 20,1), ed. E. Dassmann, J. Engemann, vol. 1 (Münster: Aschendorffsche Verlagsbuchhandlung, 1995), 218. Foss, C., Ephesus after Antiquity. A Late Antique, Byzantine and Turkisch City (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1979), 9 n. 31. Halkin, F., "Inscriptions grecques relatives à l'hagiographie, IX, Asie Mineure", Analecta Bollandiana 71 (1953), 79. Karydis, N., "The evolution of the Church of St. John at Ephesos during the early Byzantine period", Jahreshefte des österreichischen archäologischen Institutes in Wien 84 (2015), 97-128. Sotiriou, G.A., "Ἀνασκαφαὶ τοῦ βυζαντινοῦ ναοῦ τοῦ Ἰωάννου Θεολόγου ἐν Ἐφέσῳ", Archaiologikon Deltion 7 (1921-1922), 88-226. Reference works: Bulletin épigraphique (1953), 177. Supplementum Epigraphicum Graecum 4, 551.

Usage metrics

Categories

Keywords

Licence

Exports