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E00759: Marutha (ob. ca 420), a bishop of Maypherqat (Martyropolis) in Mesopotamia, issues a canon that seeks to regularise the practice of eucharistic liturgy and other sacraments as performed in the martyr shrines, located outside of cities. From the Seventy Three Canons.

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posted on 02.10.2015, 00:00 by sminov
Marutha of Maypherqat, Seventy-three Pseudo-Nicene canons, Canon 65

ܣܗ: ܥܠ ܕܐܝܟܐ ܙܕܩ ܕܢܬܩܪܒ ܩܘܪܒܢܐ ܒܛܟܣܐ ܘܡܛܠ ܐܝܩܪܐ ܕܕܘܟ̈ܝܬܐ.

ܗܘܐ ܨܒܝܢܐ ܠܣܘܢܗܕܘܤ ܬܒܝܠܝܬܐ ܕܕܝܖ̈ܬܐ ܘܒܝܬ ܣܗܕܘ̈ܬܐ ܕܩܪܒܝܢ ܠܡܕܝܢܬܐ ܠܐ ܢܗܘܐ ܐܝܬ ܠܗܘܢ ܫܘܠܛܢܐ ܕܒܟܠܙܒܢ ܢܩܪܒܘܢ.
ܕܢܥܡܕܘܢ ܘܢܬܠܘܢ ܩܘܕܫܐ ܒܟܠܙܒܢ ܫܠܝܛܝܢ.
ܕܢܩܪܒܘܢ ܕܝܢ ܒܥܐܕ̈ܐ ܘܒܨܘܡܐ ܕܐܪܒܥܝܢ ܫܠܝܛܝܢ ܒܠܚܘܕ ܢܥܒܕ ܥܐܕܐ ܘܢܫܡܫ ܐܝܟ ܘܠܝܬܐ ܘܢܫܡܠܐ ܘܢܓܡܘܪ ܟܠܗ ܩܢܘܢܐ.
ܗܟܢܐ ܐܦ ܒܨܘܡܐ ܫܠܝܛܝܢ ܕܢܩܪܒܘܢ. ܐܠܐ ܕܢܣܒܘܢ ܡܢ ܠܓܘ ܘܢܬܠܘܢ ܒܟܠܙܒܢ.
ܘܐܢ ܩܪܝܐ ܥܠܬܐ ܘܗܘܐ ܕܘܟܪܢܐ ܕܚܕ ܡܢ ܣܗ̈ܕܐ ܐܘ ܕܚܕ ܡܢ ܖ̈ܫܝ ܕܝܖ̈ܬܐ. ܢܣܒܘܢ ܡܦܣܢܘܬܐ ܡܢ ܐܪܟܕܝܩܘܢ ܘܢܩܪܒܘܢ.
ܪܗܘܡܐ ܕܝܢ ܘܐܠܟܣܢܕܪܝܐ ܪܒܬܐ ܘܡܕܝܢܬ ܡܠܟܘܬܐ ܩܘܣܛܢܛܝܢܦܘܠܝܤ ܘܐܦܣܘܤ ܘܐܢܛܝܟܝܐ ܕܣܘܪܝܐ ܘܐܘܪܫܠܡ ܢܗܘܘܢ ܫܠܝܛܝܢ ܒܗ̈ܟܠܐ ܕܣܗ̈ܕܐ ܘܒܕܝܖ̈ܬܐ ܕܢܩܪܒܘܢ ܐܝܟ ܡܛܠ ܐܝܩܪܐ ܕܟܘܖ̈ܣܘܬܐ ܕܒܗܝܢ. ܘܢܬܝܩܖ̈ܢ ܕܝܖ̈ܬܗܝܢ ܥܡܗܝܢ.
ܘܐܦ ܒܩܘܙܝܩܘܤ ܡܕܝܢܬܐ ܦܩܕܢܢ ܕܢܬܩܪܒܘܢ ܒܗ̈ܝܟܠܐ ܘܒܕܝܖ̈ܬܐ ܘܠܐ ܢܟܠܐ ܐܦܣܩܘܦܐ ܡܛܠ ܣܘܓܐܐ ܕܗܪܣܝܤ ܕܐܝܬ ܠܘܬܗܘܢ.
ܘܐܦ ܒܛܒܪܝܘܤ ܢܩܪܒܘܢ ܘܠܐ ܢܬܟܠܘܢ ܡܛܠ ܕܚܠܬܐ ܕܝܗܘ̈ܕܝܐ ܕܐܝܬ ܬܡܢ.
ܘܐܦ ܒܒܥܠܒܟ ܢܩܪܒܘܢ ܡܛܠ ܕܚ̈ܠܬܐ ܕܚܢ̈ܦܐ ܕܐܝܬ ܬܡܢ.
ܘܒܩܣܪܝܐ ܘܒܝܫܢ ܘܫܡܪܝܢ ܘܫܪܟܐ ܕܡܕܝܢ̈ܬܐ ܕܬܡܢ. ܘܠܐ ܢܬܟܠܘܢ ܡܛܠ ܕܚܠܬܐ ܕܫܡܖ̈ܝܐ ܕܐܝܬ ܬܡܢ.
ܘܐܦ ܒܣܠܝܩ ܒܐܬܪܐ ܕܡܕܢܚܐ ܢܩܪܒܘܢ. ܘܠܐ ܢܬܟܠܘܢ ܡܛܠ ܕܚܠܬܐ ܕܡܓܘ̈ܫܐ. ܘܫܪܟܐ ܕܡܕܝܢ̈ܬܐ ܣܖ̈ܝܩܬܐ.
ܘܗܟܢܐ ܒܗܢܐ ܙܢܐ ܟܠ ܐܝܢܐ ܕܐܝܬ ܕܚ̈ܠܬܐ ܕܗܖ̈ܣܝܤ ܐܘ ܕܚܢ̈ܦܐ ܐܘ ܕܝܗܘ̈ܕܝܐ ܢܩܪܒܘܢ ܘܠܐ ܢܬܟܠܘܢ.
ܗܠܝܢ ܕܠܐ ܚܪܡܐ.


'65. About this (namely), where the sacrifice shall rightly be brought according to order, and regarding the honour of the locations (where it is offered).

It is the will of the general synod that the monasteries and the martyria which are close to the towns shall not have the authority on every occasion to offer (the sacrifice).
But they are allowed to baptize and give communion every time.
They are allowed, however, that they can offer (the Eucharist) only on the festivals and during the forty days fast – to make a festival and to serve as it is valid and to complete and perfect the entire canon.
In like manner are they also allowed to offer during the fast; but they may take it from within and give it at any time.
However, if a cause demands it and there is a commemoration of one of the martyrs or of one of the abbots, they shall receive permission from the archdeacon, and (only then) shall they offer.
But in Rome, in Alexandria the great, in the king's city Constantinople, in Ephesus, in Antioch of Syria, and in Jerusalem, they shall be allowed to sacrifice in the temples of the martyrs and in the monasteries because of the honor of the sees which is in them. And together with these (so) shall their monasteries be honored.
Also in the town Cyzicus we command that in the temples and the monasteries there shall be sacrifice and that the bishop shall not hinder them because of the multitude of the heresies which is (to be found) among them.
And also in Tiberias shall they sacrifice and they shall not be hindered because of the religion of the Jews which is (present) there.
Also in Baalbek shall they sacrifice because of the religions of pagans which are there.
And in Caesara, in Baišān and Samaria and the rest of the towns which are there they shall not be hindered because of the religion of the Samaritans which is there.
And also in Seleucia in the land of the Orient, they shall sacrifice and they shall not be hindered because of the religion of the Magi and the remaining idol (worshipping) towns.
So in like manner wherever there is the religion of heretics or of pagans or of the Jews they shall offer and shall not be hindered.
These (canons) are without an anathema.

Ed. and trans. Vööbus 1982, v. 1, pp. 107-108, v. 2, pp. 89-90.

History

Evidence ID

E00759

Saint Name

Anonymous martyrs : S00060

Type of Evidence

Literary - Other

Language

Syriac

Evidence not before

350

Evidence not after

420

Activity not before

350

Activity not after

420

Place of Evidence - Region

Mesopotamia

Place of Evidence - City, village, etc

Martyropolis

Place of evidence - City name in other Language(s)

Martyropolis Edessa Edessa Ἔδεσσα Edessa

Cult activities - Liturgical Activity

  • Service for the Saint

Cult activities - Festivals

  • Saint’s feast

Cult activities - Places

Cult building - independent (church)

Source

Marutha, a native of the region of Sophanene in northern Mesopotamia, was born in the middle of the 4th century into the family of the local governor. Having received a good medical education, he joined the priesthood and, eventually, became a bishop of the city of Martyropolis. Marutha was actively involved in ecclesiastical affairs both in the Roman empire and in the Sasanian Persia, which he visited on several occasions as the mediator sent with diplomatic missions by emperor Arcadius to shah Yazdegerd I. He helped organise and took part in the synod convened on February 1st of the year 410 in Seleucia-Ctesiphon, at which the Council of Nicaea was officially accepted by the bishops of Persia. Accordingly, a number of Syriac texts concerning the Council of Nicaea, including Syriac translation of some of its genuine canons, is transmitted under this bishop's name. One of these works comprises seventy-three canons that cover different aspects of ecclesiastical life. Although this collection as a whole is unlikely to be authored by Marutha himself, most scholars seem to agree that its core goes back to him. On Marutha's career and works, see Tisserant 1928; Labourt 1904, pp. 87-99; Marcus 1932. For the Syriac text and English translations, see Vööbus 1982, v. 1, pp. 56-115, v. 2, pp. 51-95; German translation: Braun 1898, pp. 61-112. For a discussion of this canonical collection, see Vööbus 1982, v. 2, pp. vi-x.

Discussion

Canon 65 of the collection seeks to regularise the practice of eucharistic liturgy as performed in the 'martyr shrines' (Syr. bet sāhedwātā) and monasteries, located outside of cities. It forbids the clergy, who are in charge of such churches, to perform such liturgies on every occasion, while allowing them to do it only at festivals and during Lent. In cases of the festivals of specific martyrs or abbots they have to obtain permission from the archdeacon. After such a general statement, the canon proceeds with prescribing how this rule should be applied in a number of major urban centers of the Roman and Persian empires.

Bibliography

Main editions and translations: Braun, O., De sancta Nicaena synodo. Syrische Texte des Maruta von Maipherkat nach einer Handschrift der Propaganda zu Rom (Kirchengeschichtliche Studien 4.3; Münster im Wien: Ferdinand Schöningh, 1898). Vööbus, A., The Canons Ascribed to Mārūtā of Maipherqaṭ and Related Sources. 2 vols. (CSCO 439-440, Syr. 191-192; Louvain: Peeters, 1982). Further reading: Labourt, J., Le christianisme dans l’empire perse sous la dynastie sassanide (224–632) (Bibliothèque de l’enseignement de l’histoire ecclésiastique 11; Paris: V. Lecoffre, 1904). Marcus, R., “The Armenian Life of Marutha of Maipherkat,” Harvard Theological Review 25:1 (1932), 47-71. Tisserant, E., “Marouta de Maypherqat,” in: Dictionnaire de théologie catholique (Paris: Letouzey et Ané, 1928), vol. 10, 142-149.

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