File(s) not publicly available

E00719: Basil of Caesarea delivers his Homily 23 on *Mamas (martyr of Caesarea, S00436) on the martyr’s festival at his shrine in Kaisareia/Caesarea (central Asia Minor), mentioning various miracles; the feast coincides with the New Lord’s Day (first Sunday after Easter). Written in Greek in Caesarea in the 370s.

online resource
posted on 17.09.2015, 00:00 by erizos
Basil of Caesarea, Homily 23, On Mamas (CPG 2868, BHG 1020)

ΟΜΙΛΙΑ ΚΓ’
Εἰς τὸν ἅγιον μάρτυρα Μάμαντα

‘Homily 23. On the holy martyr Mamas’
 
Οὐκ ἀγνοῶ τὸ μέγεθος τῶν ὑπὸ τῆς πανηγύρεως ἐγκωμίων· ἀλλ’ ὥσπερ τοῦτο ἐπίσταμαι, οὕτω καὶ τῆς ἀσθενείας τῆς ἐμαυτοῦ ἐπαισθάνομαι. Ἡ μὲν γὰρ ὑπόθεσις ἀπαιτεῖ ἄξιόν τι ῥηθῆναι τῶν συνελθόντων καὶ τῆς ἐλπίδος ἧς ἔχουσιν ἐφ’ ἡμῖν, καὶ τῆς ὑποθέσεως. Ἐπειδὴ γὰρ ἐπὶ τῇ μεγίστῃ τῶν μαρτύρων ἄγομεν τὴν μνήμην σήμερον, ὀρθὴ πᾶσα διάνοια καὶ ἐμπαράσκευος ἀκοὴ, εἰπεῖν τι ἄξιον τοῦ μάρτυρος προσδοκῶσα, καὶ πόθῳ τῷ περὶ αὐτὸν τὴν ἐκκλησίαν ἐπάγει. Καὶ γὰρ εὐγνώμονες παῖδες μεγάλα ἀπαιτοῦσι τὰ τῶν πατέρων ἐγκώμια, καὶ οὐκ ἂν καταδέξαιντο ἐν μικρότητι τοῦ λέγοντος κινδυνεύειν τῶν ἐγκωμιαζομένων τὸ μέγεθος. Ὥστε ὅσῳ μείζων ἡ προθυμία, τοσούτῳ μέγας ὁ κίνδυνος. Τί οὖν ποιήσομεν; Πῶς δὲ καὶ τὰς ὑμετέρας ἐπιθυμίας ἀποπληρώσομεν, καὶ αὐτοὶ μὴ ἀπέλθωμεν ἀσυντελεῖς τῶν παρόντων; Παρακαλέσομεν ἑκάστην ψυχὴν, ἃ ἔχουσα ἦλθεν ἐν τῇ μνήμῃ, ταῦτα ἀνακαινήσασαν τῇ διανοίᾳ, οἴκοθεν ἐπισιτισαμένην, τοῖς οἰκείοις ἐφοδίοις ἑαυτὴν εὐφράνασαν ἀπελθεῖν. Μνήσθητέ μοι τοῦ μάρτυρος, ὅσοι δι’ ὀνείρων αὐτοῦ ἀπηλαύσατε· ὅσοι, περιτυχόντες τῷ τόπῳ τούτῳ, ἐσχήκεσαν αὐτὸν συνεργὸν εἰς προσευχήν· ὅσοις, ὀνόματι κληθεὶς, ἐπὶ τῶν ἔργων παρέστη· ὅσους ὁδοιπόρους ἐπανήγαγεν· ὅσους ἐξ ἀῤῥωστίας ἀνέστησεν· ὅσοις παῖδας ἀπέδωκεν ἤδη τετελευτηκότας· ὅσοις προθεσμίας βίου μακροτέρας ἐποίησεν. Πάντα μοι συναγαγόντες, ἐγκώμιον ἐκ κοινοῦ ἐράνου πονήσατε. Ἀλλήλοις διάδοτε, ἃ οἶδεν ἕκαστος, τῷ μὴ εἰδότι· ἃ μὴ οἶδε, λαμβανέτω παρὰ τοῦ εἰδότος, καὶ οὕτως ἐκ συνεισφορᾶς ἀλλήλους συνεστιάσαντες, ἡμῶν τῇ ἀσθενείᾳ σύγγνωτε. Ταῦτα γὰρ ἐγκώμια μάρτυρος, ὁ πλοῦτος τῶν πνευματικῶν χαρισμάτων. Οὐ γὰρ ἔχομεν αὐτὸν κατὰ τὸν νόμον τῶν ἔξωθεν ἐγκωμίων ἀποσεμνύνειν· οὐκ ἔχομεν λέγειν πατέρας καὶ προγόνους περιφανεῖς. Αἰσχρὸν γὰρ ἀλλοτρίοις κόσμοις κοσμεῖσθαι τὸν τῇ οἰκείᾳ ἀρετῇ διαφανῆ. Συνηθείας γὰρ νόμοις τὰ τοιαῦτα ἐν τοῖς ἐγκωμίοις παραλαμβάνουσιν. Ἐπεὶ ὅ γε τῆς ἀληθείας ἴδια ἑκάστου ἀπαιτεῖ τὰ ἐγκώμια. Οὔτε γὰρ ἵππον ταχὺν ποιεῖ ἡ τοῦ πατρὸς περὶ τὸν δρόμον εὐμοιρία, οὔτε κυνὸς ἐγκώμιον τὸ ἐκ ταχυτάτων φῦναι. Ἀλλ’ ὥσπερ ἄλλων ζώων ἡ ἀρετὴ ἐν αὐτῷ θεωρεῖται ἑκάστῳ, οὕτω καὶ ἀνδρὸς ἴδιος ἔπαινος ὁ ἐκ τῶν ὑπαρχόντων αὐτῷ κατορθωμάτων μαρτυρούμενος. Τί πρὸς τὸν παῖδα ἡ τοῦ πατρὸς περιφάνεια; Οὕτως οὐκ ἔλαβεν ἑτέρωθεν τὸ περιφανὲς ὁ μάρτυς· ἀλλ’ αὐτὸς τῷ ἐφεξῆς βίῳ λαμπτῆρα εὐκλείας ἀνῆψεν. Ἀπὸ Μάμαντος οἱ λοιποὶ, οὐκ ἀφ’ ἑτέρων Μάμας. Παῖδες οἱ παρὰ τούτου τὴν εὐσέβειαν διδαχθέντες τούτῳ σεμνυνέσθωσαν. Αὐτὸς γὰρ οἴκοθεν βρύει τὴν ἀρετήν. Οὐκ ἔστιν ὥσπερ χείμαῤῥος ἀλλοτρίᾳ συῤῥοίᾳ σεμνυνόμενος, ἀλλὰ πηγή ἐστιν ἀπὸ τῶν οἰκείων λαγόνων προχέουσα τὸ κάλλος. Θαυμάσωμεν τὸν ἄνδρα μὴ ἀλλοτρίῳ κόσμῳ κοσμούμενον, ἀλλὰ τῷ ἰδίῳ ἀποσεμνυνόμενον. Ὁρᾷς τοὺς λαμπροὺς ἱπποτρόφους; ὁρᾷς τὰ λευκὰ αὐτῶν μνήματα; πῶς λίθοι εἰσὶ παρατρεχόμενοι; Μνήμῃ δὲ μάρτυρος καὶ πᾶσα μὲν χώρα κεκίνηται, πᾶσα δὲ πόλις πρὸς ἑορτὴν μεταπεποίηται. Οὐδὲ οἱ συγγενεῖς τῶν πρὸς τοὺς τῶν πατέρων ἀποτρέχουσι τάφους, ἀλλὰ πάντες ἐπὶ τὸν τόπον τῆς εὐσεβείας. Πατέρα τοῦτον τὸν ἀρχηγὸν τῆς ἀληθείας, ἀλλ’ οὐχὶ πατέρας καὶ σωμάτων ἀρχηγοὺς ὀνομάζουσιν. Ὁρᾷς πῶς ἀρετὴ τιμᾶται, καὶ οὐχὶ πλοῦτος; (……) Ὥστε, εἴ τις μέμνηται τοῦ ποιμένος, μὴ θαυμαζέτω τὸν πλοῦτον. Συνήλθομεν γὰρ ἐπαινέσαι οὐχὶ πλούσιον ὄντα· μὴ ἀπέλθῃς πλούσιον θαυμάζων, ἀλλὰ πενίαν μετ’ εὐσεβείας. Ποιμὴν οὐδὲν μέγα, οὐδὲ σοφὸν ἐπιτήδευμα. Οὐκ ἂν, ὀργισθεὶς, ἀντὶ ὀνείδους εἶπες τῷ παροξύναντί σε· Ποιμὴν εἶ; Ποιμὴν οὐδὲν πλέον τῆς ἐφημέρου τροφῆς κεκτημένος, πήραν ἀνημμένος, καὶ κορύνην φέρων, καὶ τὰ πρὸς ἡμέραν ἐφόδια, οὐδεμίαν μέριμναν περὶ τῆς αὔριον ἔχων. Θηρίοις πολέμιος, ἡμερωτάτων ζώων σύννομος, φεύγων ἀγορὰν, φεύγων δικαστήρια, οὐ γνωρίζων συκοφάντας, οὐ γνωρίζων ἐμπορίαν, οὐκ εἰδὼς πλοῦτον, οὐκ ἔχων ἰδίαν σκέπην, ὑπὸ τὴν κοινὴν τοῦ κόσμου διαιτώμενος, ἐν νυκτὶ πρὸς οὐρανὸν ἀναβλέπων, καὶ διὰ τῶν ἀστέρων ἀναγινώσκων τὸ θαῦμα τοῦ πεποιηκότος. Ποιμήν. Μὴ ἐπαισχυνώμεθα τὴν ἀλήθειαν. Μὴ τοὺς ἔξωθεν μυθοποιοὺς μιμώμεθα, μὴ περιστέλλωμεν τὴν ἀλήθειαν εὐπρεπείᾳ ῥημάτων. Γυμνὴ ἡ ἀλήθεια, ἀσυνηγόρητος, αὐτὴ ἑαυτὴν δεικνῦσα. Πλείονι λόγῳ τὸ ταπεινόν· ἀλλὰ μᾶλλον θαυμάσεις τῷ ἐγκωμίῳ. Ποιμὴν καὶ πένης, ταῦτα τῷ Χριστιανῷ τὰ σεμνολογήματα. Ἐὰν τοὺς ἀρχηγοὺς τοῦ διδασκαλείου τοῦ κατ’ εὐσέβειαν ζητήσῃς, ἁλιεῖς τε καὶ τελῶναι· ἐὰν τοὺς μαθητὰς, σκυτοτόμοι πένητες. Οὐδεὶς πλούσιος, οὐδαμοῦ περιφάνεια. Ταῦτα πάντα μετὰ τοῦ κόσμου κατήργηται. Ἰδοὺ τοίνυν τίνος ἡμέραν ἑορτάζομεν, ἐπὶ τίνι φαιδροὶ πάντες ἐσμὲν, ἐπὶ τίνι βίος μεταπεποίηται. Ἐπειδὴ ὑπεμνήσθημεν τοῦ ποιμένος, μὴ καταφρόνει τῆς προσηγορίας.


‘I am not unaware of the importance of the panegyrics given on this festal gathering. But as much as I know that, even so do I realise my own weakness. The occasion demands us to say something that will stand up to the expectations the congregation has from us, and to the occasion itself. Since today we commemorate the greatest of the martyrs’ feasts, every mind is up and every ear is prepared, expecting us to say something worthy of the martyr, and joins the assembly with fervent love for him. Indeed, grateful children demand great lauds for their fathers, and would not suffer the greatness of the honour to be jeopardised by the insufficiency of the speaker. So the greater your fervour is, the greater my danger. What shall we do then? How shall we both satisfy your desires, and avoid departing having contributed nothing with regard to the current affairs? We shall urge every soul to refresh in its mind the memories it came with to this memorial service, and to leave having feasted with its own means, having eaten the food it has brought from home. Do remember the martyr as many of you as had the pleasure of seeing him in dreams; as many of you as had him as a helper in their prayers, while visiting this place; as many as he visited in their works, after being invoked by name; as many travellers as he brought back home; as many as he raised from their illness; to as many as he gave back children that had almost died; for as many as he prolonged the limits of their life. Do gather everything together and produce an encomium from a general collection. Distribute to one another, whatever each one knows to the person that does not know. Whatever one does not know, let them receive from one that knows, and thus, having treated each other by your mutual contributions, do forgive our weakness.

These are indeed eulogies fitting for a martyr, namely the bounty of spiritual giving. For we cannot praise him according to the rules of secular eulogies. We have no illustrious fathers and ancestors to talk about. It would indeed be shameful to honour by the honours of others a man conspicuous by his own virtue. In secular eulogies, they devise these things by the laws of custom. The law of truth, however, demands that eulogies be unique and individual for each person. The success of its father in the race does not make a horse fast, nor does a dog get praised for having very fast ancestors. But, just like virtue in other animals is assessed for each one of them individually, similarly praise must be individual for a man, as attested by his own achievements. What difference does the father’s fame make for his child? Accordingly, the martyr did not get his fame from others, but he himself lit a beacon of glory for posterity. It is the rest that receive from Mamas, not Mamas from others. Let the children that have been taught piety from him feel honoured. For he gushes with virtue from his house. He is not like a stream which grows by the confluence of others, but he is a spring which pours around its beauty from its own guts. Let us admire the man that is not honoured by the honours of others, but by his own. Can you see the brilliant sponsors of horse races? Can you see their white graves? That they are mere stones everyone passes by? But on the memory of the martyr the whole land has been raised and the entire city has been prepared for a festival. Relatives do not rush to the graves of their fathers, but everyone comes to this place of piety. They call father this leader of truth, not the fathers and leaders of mortal bodies. Can you see that it is virtue that is honoured, and not wealth? (……)

So if one keeps the memory of the shepherd, let him not admire wealth. For we have gathered to praise a man who was not rich; do not depart admiring the rich man, but poverty joined with piety. To be a shepherd is neither a great nor learned profession. In your anger, would you not tell the man that has annoyed you ‘Are you a shepherd?’ A shepherd possesses nothing but his daily food; he puts on a leathern pouch and carries a stick and the necessary provisions for the day, with no care for tomorrow. An enemy of wild beasts and a companion in pasture of the tamest of animals, he keeps away from the agora, keeps away from the courts, knows no sycophants, knows no trade, has no idea about wealth; he has no roof of his own, but lives under the common roof of the world, looking up at the sky at night, and reading in the stars the splendour of the Creator.

A shepherd. Let us not be embarrassed by truth. Let us not imitate worldly fable makers. Let us not reduce truth by beautifying our words: let the truth be naked, without advocate, exposing itself by itself. Humility is worthy of greater praise, but you will rather develop admiration through eulogies. A shepherd and poor man: these are titles of honour for a Christian. If you look for the chief tutors of the true religion, they were fishermen and publicans; their disciples were poor leather workers. There is no rich man, nowhere is there prominence. Behold then whose day we are celebrating, for whom we are all rejoicing, for whom our life has changed. Since we have kept the memory of the shepherd, do not disdain his title.'

The most important biblical figures from Abel to the Apostles are poor men of humble professions. Christ describes himself as the good s

History

Evidence ID

E00719

Saint Name

Mamas, martyr in Kaisareia/Caesarea of Cappadocia : S00436

Saint Name in Source

Μάμας

Type of Evidence

Literary - Sermons/Homilies

Language

Greek

Evidence not before

370

Evidence not after

379

Activity not before

370

Activity not after

379

Place of Evidence - Region

Asia Minor

Place of Evidence - City, village, etc

Kaisareia/Caesarea in Cappadocia

Place of evidence - City name in other Language(s)

Kaisareia/Caesarea in Cappadocia Nicomedia Νικομήδεια Nikomēdeia Izmit Πραίνετος Prainetos Nicomedia

Major author/Major anonymous work

Basil of Caesarea

Cult activities - Liturgical Activity

  • Service for the Saint

Cult activities - Festivals

  • Saint’s feast

Cult activities - Places

Cult building - unspecified

Cult activities - Non Liturgical Practices and Customs

Prayer/supplication/invocation

Cult Activities - Miracles

Miracle after death Healing diseases and disabilities Miraculous protection - of people and their property Apparition, vision, dream, revelation

Cult Activities - Protagonists in Cult and Narratives

Ecclesiastics - bishops Children Other lay individuals/ people

Source

Born around 330 to an aristocratic Christian family of Neokaisareia/Neocaesarea of Pontus Polemoniacus (Anatolia), Basil was educated in Kaisareia/Caesarea, Antioch, and Athens. After his studies, he spent time in the monasteries in Egypt, before returning to Pontus, where he organised an ascetic community on his family estate in Pontus. In the 360s, Basil was ordained in Kaisareia/Caesarea, and, on 14 June 370, he was consecrated bishop there. He died on 1 January 379. Basil was a prolific writer, composing homilies, theological, ascetical, and liturgical works. We also have nearly 370 of his letters. Four of his homilies refer to the martyrs, all apparently delivered in the 370s. However, we can assume that the bishop preached homilies also on other martyr feasts, which have not come down to us. For the manuscript tradition (47 manuscripts), editions, and translations of this text, see: Fedwick, P.J., Bibliotheca Basiliana Universalis. 5 vols. Vol. II, 2 (Corpus Christianorum; Turnhout: Brepols, 1996), p. 1108-1110. http://pinakes.irht.cnrs.fr/notices/oeuvre/8180/

Discussion

Basil composed and delivered this homily during a service held for the celebration of the local Caesarean martyr *Mamas whose shrine lay in the countryside half a mile outside Kaisareia/Caesarea. At the end of the sermon, Basil states that the feast coincided with the closing of the yearly cycle. This most probably refers to the New Lord’s Day, namely the first Sunday after Easter, which signalled the beginning of a new yearly cycle of Sunday readings. This is also suggested by the fact that Gregory of Nazianzus also includes a reference to Mamas in his Homily 44 On the New Lord’s Day (E00912). Since the feast of the martyr most probably had a stable date, while the New Lord’s Day was movable, it is unlikely that they coincided frequently, and therefore chances are that Basil’s Homily 23 and Gregory’s Homily 44 were delivered on the same day. This suggests that Mamas’ feast was originally celebrated in spring, probably in April or May, but, curiously, no such festival been recorded in any of the surviving martyrologies. Mamas’ hagiography and the 10th-century Synaxarion of Constantinople place his feast on 2 September. This festival, however, may have been established later, when the beginning of the Byzantine civil and ecclesiastical indiction year was fixed to be celebrated on 1 September. Basil’s reference to the feast of Mamas as coinciding with the end of the year may have been misinterpreted as referring to the beginning of the Byzantine indiction. Our text contains very little information on the saint. The author acknowledges the expectations of his congregation for a nice sermon relating the story of Mamas, and this is an important testimony for the role of sermons given during martyrs’ festivals. Yet Basil is evidently eager to talk about other things. His opening paragraph could be paraphrased as: ‘I understand that you expect me to talk about the saint, but you will have to satisfy yourselves with your own stories which you should share with one another; I wish to talk about other things.’ The reasons for this unexpected twist can only be conjectured. In fact, this is not the only time Basil does this: in his homily on *Ioulitta (E00670), he also suppresses the hagiographic narrative into a small part of his homily, in order to talk about spiritual and moral matters. Even though Basil accepted and indeed promoted the cult of martyrs, it seems that he personally appreciated it mainly as a source of moral models and, more often than not, of radical social messages. On this occasion, he draws on the martyr’s humble origins and profession (a poor shepherd – the only information provided by the sermon on the figure of the martyr), in order to formulate an egalitarian message questioning the privileges of wealth and noble birth. A possible reason for Basil’s decision to deliver such an ‘un-hagiographic’ homily on a saint’s festival could be that the bishop was upset with certain issues of his own time. The targets of this homily seem to be the elite of Kaisareia/Caesarea, and clerics opposing Basil on Christological matters, and causing division among the local Christian community. This is suggested by the main moralising themes of the sermon. The first point of the homily is that the saint’s glory derives from his own personal feats and virtue rather than from the prominence of his family. Playing on the norms of traditional eulogies, which start with a reference to the person’s origins and parents, Basil states that true honour must be based on a person’s real achievements, and not on illustrious relatives. The targets of such a remark are evidently the rich and the great of the city. Basil grasps on the fact that his audience, on their way to the martyrium, will have passed by the monumental tombs of famous people and great families of Kaisareia/Caesarea: none of the tombs of the rich attracts as much interest as the tomb of the humble shepherd Mamas. The martyr’s profession is used in support of the same argument, namely that the great figures of the faith, from Abel to the Apostles, were poor people with humble professions, not rich or important men.

Bibliography

Text: Migne, J.-P., Patrologiae cursus completus: series graeca 31 (Paris: Imprimerie Catholique, 1857). Bones, K., Bousoulas, E., and Papachristopoulos, K. (eds.), Βιβλιοθήκη Ελλήνων Πατέρων και Εκκλησιαστικών Συγγραφέων. Vol. 54 (Athens: Αποστολική Διακονία της Εκκλησίας της Ελλάδος, 1976). Further reading: Bernardi, J., La prédication des pères Cappadociens (Université de Paris, Sorbonne, 1968), p. 82-84. Girardi, M., “Biblia e agiografia nell’omiletica sui martiri di Basilio di Cesarea,” Vetera Christianorum 25 (1988), 451-486. Girardi, M., Basilio di Cesarea e il culto dei martiri nel IV secolo. Scrittura e tradizione (Bari: Istituto di Studi classici e cristiani - Università di Bari, 1990), 137-144. Limberis, V., Architects of Piety: The Cappadocian Fathers and the Cult of the Martyrs (Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press, 2011). Marava-Chatzenikolaou, A., Ο Άγιος Μάμας (Athens: Institut français d'Athènes, 1953). Maraval, P., Lieux saints et pélerinages d’Orient. Histoire et géographie des origines à la conquête arabe (Paris: Editions du Cerf, 1985), 371. Rousseau, P., Basil of Caesarea (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1994), 186.

Continued Description

hepherd who gives his own life for the sheep, whereas a hired shepherd abandons the flock when the wolf comes (John 10.11-12). The wolf in Christ’s metaphor is the Devil, whereas the hired shepherds are the Pharisees and the archpriests of the Jews. Yet hired shepherds also exist in the church, being people who care more about themselves than about the faith and peace of the church, and cause turbulence and schism by messing with theological matters. Basil refers to the Christological disputes of his time, refuting theses of the Homoean party concerning the relationship between the Father and the Son. The homily finishes with a blessing for the New Year as follows:Ὁ δὲ περιαγαγὼν ἡμῶν τὴν πανήγυριν ταύτην, καὶ πέρας δοὺς ταῖς περυσιναῖς εὐχαῖς, καὶ κεφαλὴν δοὺς τῷ ἐπιόντι χρόνῳ (ἡ γὰρ αὐτὴ ἡμέρα ὁρίζει ἡμῖν τὸν παρελθόντα κύκλον, καὶ κεφαλὴ γίνεται πάλιν τῷ ἐπερχομένῳ), ὁ τοίνυν ἐπισυνάξας καὶ χαρισάμενος τοῦ μέλλοντος τὴν ἐνέργειαν, διαφυλάξειεν ἡμᾶς ἐν αὐτῷ ἀβλαβεῖς, ἀνεπηρεάστους, ὑπὸ τοῦ λύκου ἀδιαρπάκτους· ἄσειστον τὴν Ἐκκλησίαν ταύτην, φρουρουμένην τοῖς μεγάλοις πύργοις τῶν μαρτύρων διατηρήσειε. Πᾶσαν ἐπιβουλὴν καὶ προσβολὴν αἱρετικῶν μηνιαμάτων ἀποστρέψειεν· ἐν ἡσυχίᾳ δὲ παράσχοι ἡμῖν διδάσκεσθαι τὰ θεῖα λόγια, καὶ διδάσκειν τὴν ἐπιχορηγουμένην χάριν τοῦ Πνεύματος· ὅτι αὐτῷ ἡ δόξα καὶ τὸ κράτος σὺν τῷ ἁγίῳ Πνεύματι νῦν καὶ ἀεὶ, καὶ εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας τῶν αἰώνων. Ἀμήν.‘And may He that has herded around this our assembly, and granted conclusion to last year’s prayers, and granted start to the year that follows (for this day signals for us the end of the previous cycle, and again becomes the start of the one that follows), so may He that has gathered us together and granted us the vigour for the future, keep us unharmed during this year, unaffected, and safe from the claws of the wolf. May He preserve this church unshaken, guarded by the great towers of the martyrs. May He drive away every threat and attack by heretical madness. May He grant us to be taught the divine words in tranquillity, and to teach about the grace granted by the Spirit. For unto Him be the glory and the power, with the Holy Spirit, now and forever and to the ages of ages. Amen.’Text: Migne, J.-P. (ed.), Patrologiae cursus completus: series graeca. 166 vols. Vol. 31 (Paris: Imprimerie Catholique, 1857-1866), 589B1-600B4.Translation: E. Rizos.

Usage metrics

Categories

Keywords

Licence

Exports