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E00205: Coptic self-donation document of the year 771/772 to Apa *Phoibammon (soldier and martyr of Assiut, S00080) at Deir el-Bahari (Upper Egypt) after the donor received healing through holy water from the basin located in front of the altar of the shrine located at the monastery of Apa Phoibammon on the mountain of Jeme.

online resource
posted on 18.11.2014, 00:00 by gschenke
P.KRU 104

Petronios, son of Georgios, donates himself as a servant to Apa Phoibammon, after he had fallen ill and received healing only through the water brought to him from the holy basin (λουτήρ) located in front of the altar in the topos of the saint, handed out by the oikonomos of the monastery (lines 18–27).

Full text and translation (the beginning of the document is lost):

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ⲉⲧ]ⲕ̣ⲏ̣ ⲛ̣ⲁⲓ ⲉϩⲣⲁⲓ . . ϩ̣ⲓ ϩⲟⲧⲉ ϩⲓ ϫⲓⲛϭⲟⲛⲥ ϩⲓ ⲥⲓⲛⲁⲣⲡⲁⲅⲉ ϩⲓ ⲉ-
ⲡⲉⲣⲓⲅⲣⲁⲫⲏ ⲁⲗⲗⲁ ϩⲛ ⲟⲩⲛⲟⲩⲥ ⲉϥⲧⲟⲣϩ ⲙⲛ ⲟⲩⲗⲟⲅⲓⲥⲙⲟⲥ ⲛⲁⲧ-
ⲡⲱⲛⲉ ⲙⲛ ⲟⲩⲅⲛⲱⲙⲏ ⲛⲁⲧⲣϩⲧⲏⲥ ⲙⲛ ⲟⲩⲥⲉⲛⲉⲧⲉⲥⲓⲥ ⲉⲙⲛ ⲕⲣⲟ[ϥ]
ⲛϩⲏⲧⲥ ϩⲱⲥ ⲁⲩⲧⲟⲥ ⲉϩⲟⲩⲛ ⲉⲡⲛⲟⲩⲧⲉ ⲉⲓϯ ⲙⲡⲁⲟⲩⲟⲓ ⲉⲓⲥⲱⲧⲙ ⲛ-
5 ⲥⲁ ⲛⲛⲟⲙⲟⲥ ⲛⲧⲁⲛⲛϫⲓⲥⲟⲟⲩ ⲛⲣⲣⲟⲟⲩ ⲕⲉⲗⲉⲩⲉ ⲙⲙⲟⲟⲩ ϫⲉ ⲉⲕⲝⲉⲥ-
ⲧⲓ ⲉⲧⲣⲉⲡⲟⲩⲁ ⲡⲟⲩⲁ ⲣⲡⲉⲧϥⲟⲩⲁϣϥ ϩⲛ ⲡⲉⲧⲉ ⲡⲱϥ ⲡⲉ ⲁⲛⲟⲕ ϩⲱⲧ ⲁⲓⲟⲩ-
ⲁϩⲧ ⲛⲥⲁ ⲧⲁⲕⲟⲩⲗⲟⲩⲑⲓⲁ ⲛⲛⲟⲙⲟⲥ ⲛⲧⲁⲛϫⲓⲥⲟⲟⲩ ⲕⲉⲗⲉⲩⲉ
ⲙⲙⲟⲩ ϫⲓⲛ ⲛϣⲟⲣⲡ ⲁⲓϯ ⲡⲁⲟⲩⲟⲓ ⲉ<ⲓ>ⲥϩⲁⲓ ⲙⲡⲇⲓⲕⲁⲓⲟⲛ
ⲙⲡⲙⲟⲛⲁⲥⲧⲏⲣⲓⲟⲛ ⲉⲧⲟⲩⲁⲁⲃ ⲙⲡⲁⲑⲗⲟⲫⲟⲣⲟⲥ ⲛⲛⲓⲕⲟⲫⲟⲣⲟⲥ
10 [ⲡϩⲁⲅ]ⲓⲟⲥ ⲁⲃⲃⲁ ⲫⲓⲃⲁⲙⲟⲛ ⲡⲙⲁⲣⲧⲉⲣⲟⲥ ⲡⲁⲓ ⲉⲧⲕⲏ ⲉϩⲣⲁⲓ ϩⲙ
ⲡⲧⲟⲟⲩ ⲛϫⲏⲙⲉ ϩⲁ ⲡⲛⲟⲙⲟⲥ ⲛⲧⲡⲟⲗⲓⲥ ⲉⲣⲙⲟⲛⲧ ϫⲉ
ⲉⲡⲓⲇⲏ ϩⲛ ⲧⲓⲣⲟⲙⲡⲉ ⲧⲁⲓ ⲛ(ⲓⲛ)ⲇ(ⲓⲕⲧⲓⲟⲛⲟⲥ) ⲓ ⲥⲩⲛ ⲑ(ⲉⲱ) ϩⲙ ⲡⲟⲩⲱ-
ϣⲉ ⲙⲡⲛⲟⲩⲧⲉ ⲁⲡⲛⲟⲩⲧⲉ ⲡⲓⲁⲅⲁⲑⲟⲥ ⲡⲁⲛⲓϩⲁⲡ ⲛϣⲡⲏⲣⲉ
ⲉⲓⲛⲉ ⲉϫⲱⲓ ⲛⲛⲟⲩⲛⲟϭ ⲛϣⲱⲛⲉ ⲁⲓⲣϫⲛⲧⲏⲩ ⲁⲓϩⲱⲙ ⲉⲃⲟⲗ
15 ϩⲱⲥ ϫⲓⲛⲁⲕⲱ ⲡⲧⲏⲩ ⲉⲡⲙⲟⲩ ⲁϩⲛⲣⲱⲙⲉ ⲙⲡⲓⲥⲧⲟⲥ ϫⲟⲟⲥ
ⲉⲣⲟⲓ ϫⲉ ⲥⲡⲥⲡ ⲡⲛⲟⲩⲧⲉ ⲙⲡϩⲁⲅⲓⲟⲥ ⲁⲡⲁ ⲫⲓⲃⲁⲙⲟⲛ ϥⲛⲁⲛⲁ
ⲛⲁⲕ ⲁⲓϫⲓ ⲛⲁⲓ ⲛⲛⲟⲩⲛⲟⲩⲥ ⲉϥⲧⲟⲣϩ ⲙⲛ ⲟⲩⲱϣϥ ⲛϩⲏⲧ
ⲙⲡⲓⲥⲧⲓⲥ ⲁⲓϫⲟⲟⲩ ⲉⲡⲧⲟⲡⲟⲥ ⲉⲧⲟⲩⲁⲁⲃ ⲙⲡϩⲁⲅⲓⲟⲥ ⲁⲃⲃⲁ
ⲫⲓⲃⲁⲙⲟⲛ ⲁⲓϫⲓ ⲙⲟⲟⲩ ϩⲙ ⲡⲗⲟⲩⲧⲏⲣ ⲉⲧⲟⲩⲁⲁⲃ ⲉⲧϩⲓⲑⲏ
20 ⲙⲡⲉⲑⲩⲥⲓⲁⲥⲧⲏⲣⲓⲟⲛ ϩⲛ ⲛϭⲓϫ ⲉⲧⲟⲩⲁⲁⲃ ⲙⲡⲉⲕⲉⲛⲟ-
ⲙⲟⲥ ⲉⲧⲙⲙⲁⲩ ⲁⲩⲉⲓⲛⲉ ⲁⲩⲛⲟⲩϫⲥ ⲉϫⲱⲓ ⲁⲩⲱ ⲛⲧⲉⲩⲛⲟⲩ
ⲁⲡϫⲟⲉⲓⲥ ⲥⲱⲧⲙ ⲉⲡⲁⲣⲓⲙⲉ ⲙⲛ ⲡⲁⲱϣ ⲁϩⲟⲙ ⲁϥⲭⲁⲣⲓⲍⲉ
ⲛⲁⲓ ⲙⲡⲧⲁⲗϭⲟ ⲁⲓⲙⲧⲟⲛ ⲉⲃⲟⲗ ϩⲙ ⲡⲛⲟϭ ⲛϣⲱⲛⲉ ⲁⲩⲱ
ⲁⲩⲛⲟϭ ⲛⲣⲁϣⲉ ϣⲱⲡⲉ ⲛⲁⲓ ⲁⲓϫⲟⲟⲥ ϩⲱⲧ ϫⲉ ⲟⲩ ⲡⲉⲧϣϣⲉ
25 ⲁⲩⲱ ⲡⲇⲓⲕⲁⲓⲟⲛ ⲡⲉ ⲉⲧⲣⲁⲇⲱⲣⲓⲍⲉ ⲙⲡⲁⲥⲱⲙⲁ ⲉϩⲟⲩⲛ
ⲉⲣⲟϥ ⲉⲃⲟⲗ ϫⲉ ⲛⲧⲁⲡⲟⲩϫⲁⲓ ⲧⲁϩⲟⲓ ϩⲓⲧⲛ ⲛϥⲡⲣⲉⲥ-
ⲃⲓⲁ ⲧⲉⲛⲟⲩ ⲇⲉ ϩⲙ ⲡⲟⲩⲱϣⲉ ⲙⲡⲛⲟⲩⲧⲉ ϫⲓⲛ ⲙⲡⲟⲟⲩ
ⲉⲃⲟⲗ ⲛⲛⲉⲗⲁⲁⲩⲉ ⲛⲣⲱⲙⲉ ⲣϫⲟⲉⲓⲥ ⲉϫⲛ ⲡⲁⲥⲱⲙⲁ
ⲉⲙⲏⲧⲉ ⲉⲡⲙⲟⲛⲁⲥⲧⲏⲣⲓⲟⲛ ⲉⲧⲟⲩⲁⲁⲃ ⲙⲡϩⲁⲅⲓⲟⲥ ⲁⲃⲃⲁ
30 ⲫⲓⲃⲁⲙⲟⲛ ⲡⲛⲟϭ ⲙⲙⲁⲣⲧⲏⲣⲟⲥ ⲡⲁⲓ ⲉⲧⲕⲏ ⲉϩⲣⲁⲓ ϩⲓ ⲡⲧⲟⲟⲩ
ⲉⲧⲟⲩⲁⲃ ⲛϫⲏⲙⲉ ⲡⲁⲓ ⲛⲧⲁⲓϣⲣⲡⲱⲛⲟⲙⲁⲍⲉ ⲙⲙⲟϥ
ϫⲓⲛ ϣⲟⲣⲡ ⲛⲧⲁϣⲱⲡⲉ ⲉⲓⲱ ⲛϩⲙϩⲁⲗ ⲉⲣⲟϥ ⲉⲓⲉⲩⲉⲛ-
ⲧⲓⲗⲓⲁ ⲉⲣⲟϥ ⲛⲑⲉ ⲛⲛⲟⲩϩⲙϩⲁⲗ ⲛϣⲱⲡ ϩⲁ ϩⲟⲙⲛⲧ
ⲡⲉⲧⲛⲁⲧⲟⲗⲙⲁ ⲛϥⲉⲛⲓⲅⲉ ⲙⲛ ⲡⲧⲟⲡⲟⲥ ⲉⲧⲟⲩⲁⲁⲃ
35 ⲛϥⲉⲡⲓⲭⲓⲣⲓⲥⲑⲉ ⲉⲧⲁⲓⲡⲣⲟⲥⲫⲟⲣⲁ ⲉⲧⲉ ⲡⲁⲥⲱⲙⲁ ⲡⲉ
ⲡⲁⲓ ⲛⲧⲁⲓⲇⲱⲣⲓⲍⲉ ⲙⲙⲟϥ ⲛϣⲟⲣⲡ ⲙⲛ ⲛⲛϥⲱⲫⲉⲗⲉⲓ
ⲛⲗⲁⲩⲉ ⲁⲗⲗⲁ ⲉϥⲛⲁϣⲱⲡⲉ ϩⲁ ⲡϩⲁⲡ ⲙⲙⲉ ⲙⲡⲛⲟⲩⲧⲉ
ⲡⲁⲛⲧⲱⲕⲣⲁⲧⲱⲣ ⲡⲇⲓⲙⲓⲱⲣⲅⲟⲥ ⲙⲙⲉ ⲁⲩⲱ ⲛⲧⲉ-
ⲡϩⲁⲅⲓⲟⲥ ⲁⲃⲃⲁ ⲫⲓⲃⲁⲙⲟⲛ ϫⲓ ⲕⲃⲁ ⲙⲙⲟϥ ϩⲓ ⲡⲃⲏⲙⲁ
40 ⲙⲡⲛⲟⲩⲧⲉ ⲉⲧϩⲁϩⲟⲧⲉ ⲙⲛⲛⲥⲱⲥ ⲛϥϣⲱⲡⲉ ⲉϥⲱ
ⲛϣⲙⲙⲟ ⲉⲡⲉⲓⲱⲧ ⲙⲛ ⲡϣⲏⲣⲉ ⲙⲛ ⲡⲉⲡⲛⲁ ⲉⲧⲟⲩⲁⲁⲃ
ⲁⲩⲱ ⲟⲛ ⲧⲓⲡⲁⲣⲁⲕⲁⲗⲉ ⲛⲛⲉⲝⲟⲩⲥⲓⲁ ⲛⲓⲙ ⲉⲣⲉ-
ⲡⲓⲭⲁⲣⲧⲏⲥ ⲛⲁⲉⲓ ⲉϩⲣⲁⲓ ⲉⲛϥϭⲓϫ ⲉⲧⲣϥⲧⲁϩⲟϥ ⲉⲣⲁⲧϥ
ⲉϥⲥⲙⲟⲛⲧ ϫⲉⲕⲁⲥ ⲉⲣⲉⲡϫⲟⲉⲓⲥ ⲥⲙⲟⲩ ⲉⲣⲟϥ ⲉⲃⲟⲗ
45 ϫⲉ ⲟⲩⲁⲅⲁⲡⲏ ⲛⲧⲉ ⲡⲛⲟⲩⲧⲉ ⲁⲩⲱ ⲟⲛ ⲧⲉⲧⲛⲥⲟⲟⲩⲛ
ⲧⲏⲣⲧⲛ ⲛⲁⲥⲛⲏⲩ ϫⲓⲟⲩⲇⲓⲕⲁⲓⲟⲛ ⲁⲛ ⲡⲉ ⲉⲧⲣⲉⲟⲩⲁ ⲧⲓ
ⲟⲩⲇⲱⲣⲟⲛ ⲉϩⲟⲩⲛ ⲛⲧⲉⲟⲩⲁ ϫⲟⲟⲥ ϫⲉ ⲛⲛⲁⲛⲧϥ ⲉⲃⲟⲗ
ⲁⲓⲱ ⲛⲁⲥⲛⲏⲩ ⲙⲡⲣϣⲱⲡⲉ ⲛⲑⲉ ⲛⲛⲉⲧϩⲱϥⲧ ⲛⲛⲉ-
ⲣⲏⲧ ⲙⲡϫⲟⲉⲓⲥ ⲟⲩⲇⲉ ⲙⲡⲣⲕⲗⲏⲣⲟⲩ ⲉⲛⲉⲩⲙⲁ ⲛϣⲱ-
50 ⲡⲉ ⲉⲃⲟⲗ ϫⲓⲛⲧⲁⲡⲓϩⲱⲃ ⲡⲁⲓ ϣⲱⲡⲉ ⲁⲛ ϩⲓⲱⲛ ⲁⲗⲗⲁ
ϫⲓⲛ ⲥⲁⲙⲟⲩⲏⲗ ⲡⲉⲡⲣⲟⲫⲏⲧⲏⲥ ⲉⲛⲧⲁⲩⲇⲱⲣⲓⲍⲉ
ⲙⲙⲟϥ ⲉϩⲟⲩⲛ ⲉⲡⲣⲡⲉ ⲙⲡϫⲟⲉⲓⲥ ⲉⲣⲉ ⲡⲓϩⲱⲃ ⲡⲁⲓ ⲙⲏⲛ
ⲉⲃⲟⲗ ⲛⲧⲁⲛⲥⲙⲛ ⲡⲓⲇⲱⲣⲓⲁⲥⲧⲓⲕⲟⲛ ⲇⲉ ⲉⲣⲉ-
ⲁⲃⲃⲁ ⲥⲟⲩⲣⲟⲩⲥ ⲡⲇⲓⲁⲕⲟⲛⲟⲥ ⲱ ⲙⲡⲣⲟⲉⲥⲧⲟⲥ ⲉϫⲛ
55 ⲡⲧⲟⲡⲟⲥ ⲉⲧⲟⲩⲁⲁⲃ ⲙⲡϩⲁⲅⲓⲟⲥ ⲁⲃⲃⲁ ⲫⲓⲃⲁⲙⲟⲛ
ⲡⲁⲓ ⲉⲧⲟⲩⲏϩ ϩⲙ ⲡⲧⲟⲟⲩ ⲛϫⲏⲙⲉ ⲁⲩⲱ ⲉⲣⲉ ⲡⲛⲟϭ
ⲙⲡⲣⲟⲛⲟⲓⲧⲏⲥ ⲁⲩⲱ ⲛⲫⲣⲟⲛⲧⲓⲥⲧⲏⲥ ⲕⲩ(ⲣⲓⲟⲥ) ⲯⲙⲱ ⲡⲛⲟϭ
ⲛⲛⲁⲣⲭⲱⲛ ⲱ ⲛⲇⲓⲕⲓⲧⲏⲥ ⲉϫⲛ ⲡⲕⲁⲥⲧⲣⲟⲛ ⲛϫⲏⲙⲉ
ⲁⲛⲟⲕ ⲡⲉⲧⲣⲱⲛⲓⲟⲥ ⲡϣⲏⲣⲉ ⲛⲅⲉⲱⲣⲅⲓⲟⲥ ⲁⲓⲥⲙⲛ ⲡⲇⲓ-
60 ⲕⲁⲓⲟⲛ ⲙⲡⲙⲟⲛⲁⲥⲧⲏⲣⲓⲟⲛ ⲉⲧⲟⲩⲁⲁⲃ ⲁⲓⲡⲁⲣⲁⲕⲁⲗⲉ
ⲡⲡⲥⲓⲗⲓⲱⲙⲁⲧⲟⲩⲅⲣⲁⲫⲟⲥ ⲙⲛ ϩⲛⲕⲉⲙⲛⲧⲣⲉ
ⲛⲁⲝⲓⲱⲡⲓⲥⲧⲟⲥ ⲉⲩⲛϩⲟⲧ ⲁⲩⲙⲁⲣⲧⲓⲣⲓⲥⲑⲉ ⲉⲣⲟϥ
ⲡⲣⲟⲥ ⲧϭⲟⲙ ⲛⲛⲛⲟⲙⲟⲥ ⲁⲩⲟϣϥ ⲉⲣⲟⲛ ⲗⲉⲝⲓⲥ ⲁⲛ-
ⲉⲓⲙⲉ ⲉⲧϥϭⲟⲙ ⲁⲛⲥⲉⲛⲉⲩⲇⲟⲕⲉ ⲁⲛⲉⲩⲇⲟⲕⲓⲙⲉ
65 ⲁⲛⲧⲁϫⲣⲟⲛ ⲉϫⲱϥ ⲁⲓⲕⲁⲁϥ ⲉⲃⲟⲗ ϩⲙ ⲡⲟⲩⲱ-
ϣⲉ ⲙⲡⲛⲟⲩⲧⲉ +

'… without any pressure] on me, or fear, force, deceit, or circumvention, but with a sharp mind and unwavering reasoning, a fixed opinion and a guile-lacking conviction, just as towards God, I proceed and obey the laws which the ruling masters have commanded, that it is allowed to let anyone do what he wants with that which is his own. I myself have yielded to the fulfilment of the laws which the masters commanded from the beginning. I went forward writing to the legal body (dikaion) of the holy monastery of the victorious prize bearer, saint Apa Phoibammon, the martyr, this one which is located on the mountain of Jeme in the district of the city of Hermonthis.
In this tenth indiction year, with God, through the will of God, God, the good, the bearer of miraculous judgment, brought a severe illness over me. I dried out and was withering away, so that I was about to die. Faithful people said to me, “Entreat the God of saint Apa Phoibammon, he will have mercy on you.” I gained a sharp mind and a deep honest desire, and I sent (someone) to the holy place (topos) of saint Apa Phoibammon. I received water from the holy basin (louter) located by the altar through the holy hands of that steward (oikonomos). It was brought to me and poured over me, and immediately the Lord listened to my crying and my sighing. He granted me healing and I recovered from the severe illness. Great joy came over me and I myself said, “It is befitting and it is just to let me donate my body to him, since health came upon me through his intercession (presbeia).”
Now then, through the will of God, from today onwards, no one shall be master over my body except for this aforementioned holy monastery of saint Apa Phoibammon, the great martyr, which is located on the holy mountain of Jeme, and I shall be serving it and act towards it in the manner of a servant acquired by money.
Whoever shall dare and take (legal) action against the holy place (topos) and lay hands on this sacrifice which is my body, this one which I have donated to him, he shall, first of all, not gain anything, but shall be under the true judgment of God, the Almighty, the true creator (demiourgos); and saint Apa Phoibammon shall take revenge on him at the frightful tribune of God. Furthermore, he shall be a stranger to the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit.
I also entreat any authority into whose hands this document will come to let it be put into place as produced, so that God shall bless it, for it is a loving gift to God. And you, my brothers, all know that it is not right to let someone make a gift and let someone else say, "I shall not carry it out." Truly, my brethren, do not act like robbers of promises to the Lord, nor inherit their dwelling places, because, this arrangement was not created through ourselves, but exists and remains since (the time of) Samuel, the prophet, who was given to the temple of the Lord.
We have produced this donation document while the deacon Apa Sourous is the superior (proestos) over the holy place (topos) of Saint Apa Phoibammon located on the mountain of Jeme, and while the great administrator and manager, master Psmo, the great official, is financial administrator over the castron Jeme.
I, Petronios, the son of Georgios, have produced (it for) the legal body (dikaion) of the holy monastery. I have asked the notary and trustworthy and truthful witnesses. They bore witness to it according to the power of the laws. The document was read out to us. We have recognised its validity and have agreed, accepted, and confirmed it.
I have executed it through the will of God.'

(Text: W. E. Crum and G. Steindorff, German trans. W. C. Till, Engl. trans. G. Schenke)

History

Evidence ID

E00205

Saint Name

Phoibammon, soldier martyr of Preht (ob. c. 304) : S00080 Sourous, Apa Sourous, superior and holy man at the monastery of Apa Phoibammon on the mountain of Jeme : S01584

Saint Name in Source

ⲁⲃⲃⲁ ⲫⲓⲃⲁⲙⲟⲛ ⲁⲡⲁ ⲥⲟⲩⲣⲟⲩⲥ

Type of Evidence

Documentary texts - Papyri

Language

Coptic

Evidence not before

771

Evidence not after

772

Activity not before

771

Activity not after

772

Place of Evidence - Region

Egypt and Cyrenaica Egypt and Cyrenaica

Place of Evidence - City, village, etc

Jeme Hermonthis

Place of evidence - City name in other Language(s)

Jeme Hermopolis ϣⲙⲟⲩⲛ Ashmunein Hermopolis Hermonthis Hermopolis ϣⲙⲟⲩⲛ Ashmunein Hermopolis

Cult activities - Places

Cult building - monastic

Cult activities - Places Named after Saint

  • Monastery

Cult activities - Non Liturgical Practices and Customs

Bequests, donations, gifts and offerings

Cult Activities - Miracles

Miracle after death Healing diseases and disabilities

Cult Activities - Protagonists in Cult and Narratives

Ecclesiastics - abbots Ecclesiastics - monks/nuns/hermits Other lay individuals/ people

Cult Activities - Relics

Contact relic - water and other liquids

Source

Fragmentary papyrus document, lacking the beginning, located in the British Museum in London, Papyrus 80.

Discussion

This is the only self-donation document published so far and is thus unique. It testifies to the healing cult of Apa Phoibammon as holy water from the basin by the altar is brought to the dying patient and he miraculously recovers. In gratitude, he donates himself as a servant to the Saint’s holy place (topos) for the rest of his life. In the document a reference is given (lines 51–52) to Samuel, who was donated as a servant to the temple of God (1 Samuel 1): ϫⲓⲛ ⲥⲁⲙⲟⲩⲏⲗ ⲡⲉⲡⲣⲟⲫⲏⲧⲏⲥ ⲉⲛⲧⲁⲩⲇⲱⲣⲓⲍⲉ ⲙⲙⲟϥ ⲉϩⲟⲩⲛ ⲉⲡⲣⲡⲉ ⲙⲡϫⲟⲉⲓⲥ 'since the prophet Samuel who had been donated to the temple of the lord' Such a reference is usually only included in documents mentioning the pledge of a child to the saint at birth (such as P.KRU 80, 85, 86, 89, 96, 97 and 100). One might speculate whether Petronios was originally pledged at birth, but had failed to be handed over, and attributed his illness later in life to this.

Bibliography

Edition: Crum, W.E., and Steindorff, G., Koptische Rechtsurkunden des achten Jahrhunderts aus Djeme (Theben) (Leipzig, 1971), 321-323 (P. KRU 104). German Translation: Till, W.C., Die Koptischen Rechtsurkunden aus Theben (Vienna: H. Böhlaus, 1964), 186-188. For a discussion of the document see: Schenke, G., "The Healing Shrines of St Phoibammon. Evidence of Cult Activity in Coptic Legal Documents," Zeitschrift für Antikes Christentum (ZAC) 2016, 20(3), 496–523.

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