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E00200: Coptic child donation document of 5 October 780, certifying the gift of a male child to Apa *Phoibammon (soldier and martyr of Assiut, S00080) at Deir el-Bahari (Upper Egypt), after having been granted healing at the saint’s shrine located within the monastery of Apa Phoibammon on the mountain of Jeme.

online resource
posted on 18.11.2014, 00:00 by gschenke
P.KRU 99

Thomas, son of Sabinos (line 48 and 50, but Basileios in line 3), the presbyter and resident of Dekatritou in the district of Panopolis donates his two sons, Sabinos and Job, as servants to Apa Phoibammon. Within the document no reason or explanation is given for this donation.

Full text and translation:

+ ἐν ὀνόματι τῆς ἁγίου καὶ ζωοποιοῦ ὁμοουσίου τριάδος
πατρὸς καὶ υἱο(ῦ) καὶ ἁγίου πν(εύμ)α(τος) ἐγρ(άφη) μ(ηνὸς) Φαῶφι η, ἰ(ν)δ(ικτίωνος) δ, ἔτου(ς) ρξδ
+ ⲁⲛⲟⲕ ⲑⲱⲙⲁⲥ ⲡϣⲏⲣⲉ ⲛⲃⲁⲥⲓⲗⲓⲉⲟⲥ ⲡⲉⲡⲣⲉⲥⲃⲩⲧⲉⲣⲟⲥ
ⲡⲣⲙ ⲇⲉⲕⲁⲇⲣⲓⲧⲟⲩ ϩⲛ ⲧⲕⲁϩ ϣⲙⲓⲛ ⲉⲓⲥϩⲁⲓ ⲉⲓⲧⲓ ⲙⲛⲛⲥⲱⲥ
5 ⲛϩⲉⲛϩⲩⲡⲟⲅⲣⲁⲫⲉⲩⲥ ⲉⲧⲣⲉⲩϩⲩⲡⲟⲅⲣⲁⲫⲏ ϩⲁⲣⲟⲓ ⲉⲡⲉⲓⲇⲓⲁⲥⲧⲓⲕⲟⲛ
ⲉⲧϣⲏϣ ⲉⲧⲃⲉⲃⲁⲓⲟⲩ ϩⲛ ⲟⲩϩⲱⲃ ⲛⲛⲟⲩⲱⲧ ⲉⲓⲥϩⲁⲓ ⲉⲓⲟⲩⲱϣⲉ ⲁⲩⲱ
ⲉⲓⲡⲓⲑⲉ ⲛⲁⲧⲗⲁⲁⲩⲉ ⲛⲕⲣⲟϥ ϩⲓ ϩⲟⲧⲉ ϩⲓ ϫⲓⲛϭⲟⲛⲥ ϩⲓ ⲁⲡⲁⲧⲉⲓ ϩⲓ ⲥⲓⲛⲁⲣⲡⲁⲕⲏ
ϩⲓ ⲉⲡⲓⲅⲣⲁⲫⲏ ⲉⲙⲛ ⲗⲁⲁⲩⲉ ⲛⲁⲛⲁⲅⲕⲏ ⲕⲏ ⲛⲁⲓ ⲉϩⲣⲁⲓ ⲁⲗⲗⲁ ϩⲙ ⲡⲁⲟⲩⲱϣⲉ
ⲛϩⲏⲧ ⲉⲓⲥϩⲁⲓ ⲉⲓⲇⲱⲣⲓⲍⲉ ⲛⲥⲁⲃⲓⲛⲉ ⲙⲛ ⲓⲱⲃ ⲛⲁⲙⲉⲣⲓⲧ ⲛϣⲏⲣⲉ
10 ⲉϩⲟⲩⲛ ⲉⲡⲙⲟⲛⲁⲥⲧⲏⲣⲓⲟⲛ ⲉⲧⲟⲩⲁⲁⲃ ⲙⲡϩⲁⲅⲓⲟⲥ ⲁⲃⲃⲁ ⲫⲟⲓⲃⲁⲙⲱⲛ
ⲙⲡⲧⲟⲟⲩ ⲛϫⲏⲙⲉ ⲛⲛⲉⲓϩⲟⲟⲩ ⲧⲏⲣⲟⲩ ⲙⲡⲉⲩⲱⲛϩ ⲛⲥⲉⲣ ϭⲁⲩⲟⲛ ⲉϩⲟⲩⲛ
ⲉⲡⲉϥⲙⲟⲛⲁⲥⲧⲏⲣⲓⲟⲛ ⲉⲧⲟⲩⲁⲁⲃ ϣⲁ ⲉⲛⲉϩ ⲉⲛⲟⲩⲟⲉⲓϣ ⲛⲥⲉⲣ ⲑⲉ ⲛⲣⲱⲙⲉ
ⲛⲓⲙ ⲉϥⲱ ⲛⲉⲣⲏⲧ ⲉϩⲟⲩⲛ ⲉⲙⲙⲟⲛⲁⲥⲧⲏⲣⲓⲟⲛ ⲧⲏⲣⲟⲩ ⲉⲩϣⲁⲛⲟⲩⲱϣⲉ
ⲉϩⲙⲟⲟⲥ ϩⲓ ⲡⲙⲟⲛⲁⲥⲧⲏⲣⲓⲟⲛ ⲉⲧⲟⲩⲁⲁⲃ ⲛⲥⲉⲗⲓⲣⲓⲧⲟⲩⲅⲉⲓ ⲉⲣⲟϥ ⲡⲣⲟⲥ
15 ⲑⲉ ⲉⲧⲉⲣⲉⲡⲉⲡⲣⲱⲉⲥⲧⲟⲥ ⲛⲁⲕⲉⲗⲉⲩⲉ ⲛⲁⲩ ⲏ ⲕⲁⲗⲱⲥ ⲉⲩϣⲁⲛⲟⲩⲱϣⲉ ⲟⲛ
ⲉϩⲙⲟⲟⲥ ϩⲓⲃⲟⲗ ⲉⲩⲛⲁⲧⲓ ⲡⲉⲩⲇⲏⲙⲱⲥⲓⲟⲛ ⲉϩⲟⲩⲛ ⲉⲡⲙⲟⲛⲁⲥⲧⲏⲣⲓⲟⲛ
ⲛⲥⲉⲛⲟⲩϫⲟⲩ ⲉⲡϫⲱ ⲉⲃⲟⲗ ⲛⲧⲉⲡⲣⲟⲥⲫⲱⲣⲁ ⲙⲛ ⲡϩⲏⲃⲥ ⲙⲡⲉⲓⲑⲩⲥⲓ-
ⲁⲥⲧⲏⲣⲓⲟⲛ ϩⲓⲧⲱⲧⲕ ⲥⲟⲩⲣⲟⲩⲥ ⲡⲇⲓⲁⲕⲟⲛⲟⲥ ⲁⲩⲱ ⲡⲉⲡⲣⲱⲉⲥⲧⲟⲥ
ⲙⲡⲙⲟⲛⲁⲥⲧⲏⲣⲓⲟⲛ ⲉⲧⲟⲩⲁⲁⲃ ⲡϩⲁⲅⲓⲟⲥ ⲁⲃⲃⲁ ⲫⲟⲓⲃⲁⲙⲱⲛ
20 ⲙⲡⲧⲟⲟⲩ ⲛϫⲏⲙⲉ ⲉⲕⲛⲁⲣ ⲡϫⲟⲉⲓⲥ ⲛⲛⲁⲙⲉⲣⲓⲧ ⲛϣⲏⲣⲉ ⲥⲁⲃⲓⲛⲉ
ⲙⲛ ⲓⲱⲃ ⲛⲛⲉⲓϩⲟⲟⲩ ⲧⲏⲣⲟⲩ ⲙⲡⲉⲩⲱⲛϩ ϫⲉ ⲛⲛⲉⲓⲗⲁⲁⲩⲉ ⲛⲣⲱⲙⲉ
ⲉϣⲣⲡⲉⲩϫⲟⲉⲓⲥ ⲉⲓⲙⲏⲧⲉⲓ ⲉⲡⲉⲓⲧⲟⲡⲟⲥ ⲉⲧⲟⲩⲁⲁⲃ ⲕⲩⲡⲉⲣ
ⲛⲛⲟⲙⲟⲥ ⲛⲑⲓⲉⲕⲱⲛ ⲕⲉⲗⲉⲩⲉ ϩⲛ ⲧⲉⲩⲃⲁⲥⲓⲗⲓⲕⲏ ⲧⲁⲝⲓⲥ ϫⲉ ⲁⲅ̣ⲧⲉⲓ
ⲙⲡⲟⲩⲁ ⲡⲟⲩⲁ ⲉⲧⲣⲉϥⲣⲡϫⲟⲉⲓⲥ ⲙⲡⲉⲧⲉ ⲡϣϥ ⲡⲉ ⲁⲛⲟⲕ ϩⲱⲱⲧ
25 ⲁⲓⲟⲩⲁϩⲧ ⲛⲥⲁ ⲧⲁⲕⲟⲩⲗⲟⲩⲑⲓⲁ ⲛⲛⲛⲟⲙⲟⲥ ⲧⲓⲟⲩⲱϣⲉ ⲁⲩⲱ ⲧⲓⲕⲉⲗⲉⲩⲉ
ⲉⲧⲣⲉⲡⲙⲟⲛⲁⲥⲧⲏⲣⲓⲟⲛ ⲉⲧⲟⲩⲁⲁⲃ ⲡϩⲁⲅⲓⲟⲥ ⲫⲟⲓⲃⲁⲙⲱⲛ
ⲙⲡⲧⲟⲟⲩ ⲛϫⲏⲙⲉ ⲣⲡϫⲟⲉⲓⲥ ⲛⲥⲁⲃⲓⲛⲉ ⲙⲛ ⲓⲱⲃ ⲛⲁⲙⲉⲣⲓⲧ ⲛϣⲏⲣⲉ
ⲛⲛⲉⲓϩⲟⲟⲩ ⲧⲏⲣⲟⲩ ⲙⲡⲉⲩⲱⲛϩ ⲛⲧⲟⲕ ⲥⲟⲩⲣⲟⲩⲥ ⲡⲇⲓⲁⲕⲟⲛⲟⲥ
ⲁⲩⲱ ⲡⲉⲡⲣⲱⲉⲥⲧⲟⲥ ⲉⲕⲛⲁϣⲱⲡⲉ ⲉⲕⲱ ⲛϫⲟⲉⲓⲥ ⲉⲛⲁϣⲏⲣⲉ ⲙⲛ
30 {ⲙⲛ} ⲟⲓⲕⲟⲛⲟⲙⲟⲥ ⲛⲓⲙ ⲉϥⲛⲏⲩ ⲙⲛⲛⲥⲱⲕ ⲛϩⲟⲩⲛ ⲙⲡⲉⲓⲙⲟⲛⲁⲥⲧⲏⲣⲓⲟⲛ
ⲙⲛⲛⲥⲁ ⲡⲟⲟⲩ ⲙⲛⲛⲥⲁ ϩⲉⲛⲕⲉⲟⲩⲟⲉⲓϣ ⲡⲉⲧⲛⲁⲟⲩⲱϣⲉ ⲛϥⲉⲓ ⲛϥⲏⲛⲉⲓ-
ⲅⲏ ⲙⲛ ⲡⲉⲓⲧⲟⲡⲟⲥ ⲉⲧⲟⲩⲁⲁⲃ ϩⲁ ⲛⲉⲓⲕⲟⲩⲓ ϣⲏⲣⲉ ⲟⲩⲇⲉ ⲁⲛⲟⲕ ⲟⲩⲇⲉ ⲥⲟⲛ
ⲟⲩⲇⲉ ⲥⲱⲛⲉ ⲟⲩⲇⲉ ϫⲱϩ ⲟⲩⲇⲉ ϫⲱϩ ⲛϫⲱϩ ⲟⲩⲇⲉ ⲣⲙⲛⲧⲓⲙⲉ ⲟⲩⲇⲉ
{ⲟⲩⲇⲉ} ⲣⲱⲙⲉ ϩⲟⲗⲟⲥ ⲉϥⲇⲓⲁⲡⲉⲣⲓⲥⲑⲁⲓ ⲉⲣⲟⲓ ⲉⲓⲧⲉ ϩⲛ ⲇⲓⲕⲁⲥⲧⲏ-
35 ⲣⲓⲟⲛ ⲏ ⲙⲡⲃⲟⲗ ⲛⲇⲓⲕⲁⲥⲧⲏⲣⲓⲟⲛ ⲏ ϩⲙ ⲡⲣⲁⲓⲧⲱⲣⲓⲟⲛ ⲏ ⲙⲡⲃⲟⲗ
ⲙⲡⲣⲁⲓⲧⲱⲣⲓⲟⲛ ⲏ ϩⲓⲧⲛ ⲁⲣⲭⲟⲛⲧⲓⲕⲱⲛ ⲏ ϩⲓⲧⲛ ⲉⲕⲕⲗⲏⲁⲥⲧⲓⲕⲱⲛ
ⲛⲛⲉⲓⲡⲉⲧⲙⲙⲁⲩ ⲱⲫⲩⲗⲉⲓ ⲛⲗⲁⲁⲩⲉ ⲡⲣⲱⲧⲟⲛ ⲉϥⲛⲁϣⲱⲡⲉ ⲉϥⲱ
ⲛϣⲙⲙⲱ ⲉⲡⲓⲱⲧ ⲙⲛ ⲡϣⲏⲣⲉ ⲙⲛ ⲡⲉⲡⲛ(ⲉⲩⲙ)ⲁ ⲉⲧⲟⲩⲁⲁⲃ ⲙⲛⲥⲱⲥ
ⲛϥⲧⲓ ⲉⲡⲗⲟⲅⲟⲥ ⲙⲡⲣⲟⲥⲧⲱⲙⲱⲛ ⲛⲥⲉ ⲛϩⲟⲗⲟⲕⲟⲧⲓⲛⲟⲥ ⲛⲛⲟⲩⲃ
40 (ⲛⲟⲙⲓⲥⲙⲁ) ξ ⲭⲱⲣⲓⲥ ⲧⲉⲓⲡⲓⲧⲓⲙⲓⲁ ⲛⲧⲁⲛⲛⲟⲙⲟⲥ ϩⲱⲣⲓⲍⲉ ⲙⲙⲟⲥ ⲉϫⲛ
ⲛⲁⲓ ⲇⲉ ⲧⲏⲣⲟⲩ ⲙⲛⲛⲥⲱⲥ ⲛⲧⲉⲡϩⲁⲅⲓⲟⲥ ⲁⲃⲃⲁ ⲫⲟⲓⲃⲁⲙⲱⲛ
ⲡⲙⲁⲣⲧⲩⲣⲟⲥ ⲉⲧⲧⲁⲓⲏⲩ ⲡⲁⲓ ⲉⲧⲉⲣⲉⲡⲉⲭ(ⲣⲓⲥⲧⲟ)ⲥ ⲙⲉⲉ ⲙⲙⲟϥ ⲛϥϫⲓ ⲕⲃⲁ
ⲙⲙⲟϥ ϩⲓ ⲡⲃⲏⲙⲁ ⲉⲧϩⲁ ϩⲟⲧⲉ ⲙⲡⲛⲟⲩⲧⲉ ⲡⲡⲁⲛⲧⲟⲕⲣⲁⲧⲱⲣ
ⲁⲩ‹ⲱ› ⲛϥⲕⲁⲧⲁⲧⲓⲍⲉ ⲙⲙⲟϥ ϩⲙ ⲡⲉⲓⲕⲟⲥⲙⲟⲥ ⲉⲡⲱⲣϫ ⲟⲩⲛ ⲙⲡⲑⲉⲱ-
45 ⲫⲟⲣⲟⲥ ⲛⲛⲓⲕⲟⲫⲟⲣⲟⲥ ⲡϩⲁⲅⲓⲟⲥ ⲁⲃⲃⲁ ⲫⲟⲓⲃⲁⲙⲱⲛ ⲙⲡⲧⲟⲟⲩ ⲛ-
ϫⲏⲙⲉ ⲁⲓⲥⲙⲛ ⲡⲉⲓⲇⲓⲁⲥⲧⲓⲕⲱⲛ ϥⲟⲣϫ ϥϭⲙϭⲟⲙ ϩⲙ ⲙⲁ ⲛⲓⲙ ⲉⲩⲛⲁ-
ⲉⲙⲫⲁⲛⲓⲍⲉ ⲙⲙⲟϥ ⲛϩⲏⲧϥ ⲛⲥⲉϫⲛⲟⲩⲓ ⲧⲁϩⲟⲙⲟⲗⲟⲅⲉⲓ +
+ ⲁⲛⲟⲕ ⲑⲱⲙⲁⲥ ⲡϣⲏⲣⲉ ⲛⲥⲁⲃⲓⲛⲉ ϩⲛ ⲇⲓⲕⲧⲁⲧⲣⲓⲡⲟⲩ ϩⲛ
ⲧⲕⲁϩ ϣⲙⲓⲛ ⲧⲉⲓⲥⲧⲟⲓⲭ(ⲉⲓ) ⲉⲡⲉⲓⲇⲓⲁⲥⲧⲓⲕⲟⲛ ⲡⲣⲟⲥ ⲑⲉ ⲛⲧⲁⲓⲥⲙⲛⲧϥ +

Verso:
Θωμᾶ υ̣(ἱ(?))ο(ῦ) Σαβινε(  )   ̣ Τατρίπ(ιος) (seal) Σαβινε(  ) κ(αὶ) Ἰὼβ Φαῶφι η

'In the name of the Holy, life-giving, and consubstantial Trinity, the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit. Written in the month of Phaophi, on the eighth, of the fourth indiction, year 164 (of the Saracens).
I, Thomas, the son of Basileios, the presbyter, resident of Dekatritou in the district of Panopolis, write and provide, hereafter, writing assistants to let them sign this well-balanced and likewise secure donation document for me. I write willingly and am convinced without any guile, fear, force, deceit, deception, or circumvention, while there is no pressure on me, but through my most inner desire, I write and I donate my beloved sons Sabinos and Job to the holy monastery of Saint Abba Phoibamon on the mountain of Jeme for all the days of their life, so that they are servants to his holy monastery until eternal times and so that they act like anyone who is pledge to all the monasteries. Whether they wish to remain in the holy monastery and to serve it, in accordance with what the superior (proestos) will order them to do, or whether, and just as well, they wish to reside outside, they shall (in either case) pay their tax (demosion) to the monastery and this shall be thrown in for the cost of the sacrifice and for the lamp of the altar, through you, Sourous, the deacon and superior (proestos) of the holy monastery of Saint Abba Phoibamon on the mountain of Jeme. You will be master over my beloved sons Sabinos and Job for all the days of their life, so that no one else shall be able to be their master, except for this holy place.
Although the divine laws through their regal arrangement order that it is allowed for anyone to let him be master over that which is his own, I myself have (also) yielded to the fulfilment of the (human) laws. I wish and I command to let the holy monastery of Saint Abba Phoibamon on the mountain of Djeme be master over my beloved sons Sabinos and Job for all the days of their life. You, Sourous, the deacon and superior (proestos), shall be master over my sons and any steward (oikonomos) who will come after you in this monastery, after today and after any other time.
Whoever shall wish and come forward and take action against this holy monastery concerning these young children, be it myself, a brother or a sister, a close relative or a distant relative, a resident of the village or anyone entirely unknown to me, either in a court or outside a court, in a praetorium or outside a praetorium, through a ruling authority or through a church authority, that one shall gain nothing. First of all, he shall be a stranger to the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit. Additionally, he shall pay sixty gold solidi – (in numbers:) 60 nomismata – as a fine, apart from the punishment, which the laws have determined. Moreover, afterwards the Saint Abba Phoibamon, the esteemed martyr, this one whom Christ loves, he shall take revenge on him at the fearful tribune of God, the Almighty. He shall condemn him in this world.
With respect to the security for the victorious God bearer, Saint Abba Phoibamon on the mountain of Jeme, I have produced this donation document, which is fixed and valid wherever it will be shown. I will be asked, and I will confirm (it).
I, Thomas, the son of Sabinos, from Dekatritou (?) in the district of Panopolis, I agree to this donation document in accordance with the manner in which I have produced it.

Back:
Thomas, son of Sabinos, from Dekatritou (?), Sabinos and Job, Phaophi 8th.

(Text: W. E. Crum and G. Steindorff, German trans. W. C. Till, Engl. trans. G. Schenke)

History

Evidence ID

E00200

Saint Name

Phoibammon, soldier martyr of Preht (ob. c. 304) : S00080 Sourous, Apa Sourous, superior and holy man at the monastery of Apa Phoibammon on the mountain of Jeme : S01584

Saint Name in Source

ⲁⲃⲃⲁ ⲫⲟⲓⲃⲁⲙⲱⲛ ⲁⲡⲁ ⲥⲟⲩⲣⲟⲩⲥ

Type of Evidence

Late antique original manuscripts - Papyrus sheet Documentary texts - Donation document

Language

Coptic

Evidence not before

780

Evidence not after

780

Activity not before

780

Activity not after

780

Place of Evidence - Region

Egypt and Cyrenaica Egypt and Cyrenaica

Place of Evidence - City, village, etc

Dekatritou Panopolis

Place of evidence - City name in other Language(s)

Dekatritou Hermopolis ϣⲙⲟⲩⲛ Ashmunein Hermopolis Panopolis Hermopolis ϣⲙⲟⲩⲛ Ashmunein Hermopolis

Cult activities - Places

Cult building - monastic

Cult activities - Places Named after Saint

  • Monastery

Cult activities - Non Liturgical Practices and Customs

Bequests, donations, gifts and offerings

Cult Activities - Protagonists in Cult and Narratives

Children Ecclesiastics - abbots Other lay individuals/ people

Source

P.KRU 99, short and complete papyrus document, providing an additional date, the year 164 of the Saracenes, to the usual month and indiction year; document located at the Cairo Museum, no. 8740. These documents testify, often in great detail, to a healing cult at the monastery of Apa Phoibammon. Patients remain in the holy place (topos) for a period of time, praying and entreating the saint to grant healing, and receiving the eucharist. Holy water in a basin by the altar seems to play an essential role in the healing miracles performed, when poured over the patient.

Discussion

Of the twenty-six child donation documents known so far, P.KRU 78–103 (E00179–E00204), dating from the years 734–786, nearly half are entirely preserved (P.KRU 79–82 86, 88, 91, 93, 96, 99, 100). In these documents parents state their desire to donate their son as a lifelong servant to Apa Phoibammon. The reason stated in these documents is a miraculous healing bestowed upon these children through the intervention of Apa Phoibammon. It is explicitly stated that parents proceed with this donation for the salvation of their own souls. In most documents, fathers are donating the child with the consent of its mother; occasionally, however, this procedure is carried out by mothers acting independently (P.KRU 79, 81, 86, 95), either as widows, or by simply not mentioning a husband. Formally, these donation documents following a successful healing are carried out as legal documents, addressed to the managerial body (the dikaion) of the monastery and/or to its current superior. They are written by a professional scribe, read out by a notary, approved by the donor, and signed by several witnesses. They form the final link in a chain of cult events aiming to secure a miracle healing performed in the saint’s sanctuary and are intended to ensure its lasting effect. The document belongs to a minority of just two of such complete contracts from among the child donation documents in which no narrative part is provided, the other one being P.KRU 82. This is the only donation of two children at the same time. The subscription of witnesses is lacking in the document.

Bibliography

Edition: Crum, W.E., and Steindorff, G., Koptische Rechtsurkunden des achten Jahrhunderts aus Djeme (Theben) (Leipzig, 1971), 253–320 (P. KRU 78–103). German Translations: Till, W.C., Die Koptischen Rechtsurkunden aus Theben (Vienna: H. Böhlaus, 1964), 149–186. Further reading: Biedenkopf-Ziehner, A., Koptische Schenkungsurkunden aus Thebais: Formeln und Topoi der Urkunden, Aussagen der Urkunden, Indices (Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 2001). Godlewski, W., Deir el-Bahari V: Le monastère de St. Phoibammon (Warsaw: PWN, 1986). Papaconstantinou, A., "Notes sur les actes de donation d’enfants au monastère thébain de Saint-Phoibammon," The Journal of Juristic Papyrology 32 (2002), 83–105. Papaconstantinou, A., "Theia oikonomia. Les actes thébains de donation d’enfants ou la gestion monastique de la pénurie," in: Mélanges Gilbert Dagron (Paris: Association des amis du Centre d'histore et civilisation de Byzance, 2002), 511–526. Richter, T.S., "What’s in a story? Cultural narratology and Coptic child donation documents," The Journal of Juristic Papyrology 35 (2005), 237–264. Schaten, S., "Koptische Kinderschenkungsurkunden," Bulletin de la Société d’archéologie copte 35 (1996), 129–142. Schenke, G., "The Healing Shrines of St Phoibammon. Evidence of Cult Activity in Coptic Legal Documents," Zeitschrift für Antikes Christentum (ZAC) 2016, 20(3), 496–523. Schroeder, C., "Children and Egyptian Monasteries," in: C. B. Horn and R. R. Phenix (eds.), Children in Late Ancient Christianity (Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2009), 317–338. Thissen, H.–J., "Koptische Kinderschenkungsurkunden. Zur Hierodulie im christlichen Ägypten," Enchoria 14 (1986), 117–128. Wipszycka, E., "Resources and Economic Activities of the Egyptian Monastic Communities (4th–8th century)," The Journal of Juristic Papyrology 41 (2011), 159–263, esp. 221–227. For a full range of the documentary evidence on Phoibammon: Papaconstantinou, A., Le culte des saints en Égypte des Byzantins aux Abbassides (Paris: CNRS, 2001), 204–214.

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