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E00188: Coptic child donation document of 29 August 766, certifying the gift of a male child to Apa *Phoibammon (soldier and martyr of Assiut, S00080) at Deir el-Bahari (Upper Egypt), after having been granted healing at the saint’s shrine located within the monastery of Apa Phoibammon on the mountain of Jeme.

online resource
posted on 18.11.2014, 00:00 by pnowakowski
P.KRU 86

Tachel, daughter of Sophia, from Ape in the district of Hermonthis, acting together with her sister Elisabeth, donates her son Athanasios to the saint. Tachel pledged her child already when he was ill at seven months old, but when he grew up, his mother decided against the donation. As punishment for this sin, God brought a severe illness over the boy, in the form of a demon. His mother decided to entreat the saint in his sanctuary to grant the boy healing. If so, she would fulfil her original promise and donate the boy as a life long servant to the saint at his shrine within the monastery.

Full text and translation:

+ ἐν ὀνόματι τοῦ τῆς ἁγία̣ς καὶ ζωωπι(οῦ) ὁμοσείου τριάδος
πατρὸς (καὶ) δοῦ εἱοῦ (καὶ) δ̣οῦ ἁγ̣(ί)ου πνεύματος ἐγράφ(η) μ(ηνὸς) Θὼ(θ) α, ἰνδ(ικτίωνος) ε
+ ⲁⲛⲟⲕ ⲧⲁⲭⲏⲗ ⲧϣⲏⲣⲉ ⲛⲥⲟⲫⲓⲁ ϩⲛ ⲁⲡⲏ̣ ⲡⲛⲟⲙⲟⲥ
ⲛⲧⲡⲟⲗⲓⲥ ⲉⲣⲙⲱⲛⲑ ⲁⲩⲱ ⲉⲣⲉⲧⲁⲥⲱⲛⲉ ⲟⲛ ⲉⲗⲓⲥⲁⲃⲉⲧ ⲉⲓⲣⲉ ⲙⲡⲁⲓ ⲛⲙⲙⲁⲓ
5 ⲉⲛϯ ⲙⲛⲛⲥⲱⲥ ⲙⲡϩⲩⲡⲟⲅⲣⲁⲫⲉⲩⲥ ⲉⲧⲛⲁϩⲩⲡⲟⲅⲣⲁⲫⲉ ϩⲁⲣⲟⲛ
ⲁⲩⲱ ⲉⲛⲁⲓⲧⲉⲓ ⲛϩⲉⲛⲙⲁⲣⲧⲏⲣⲟⲥ ⲛⲁⲝⲓⲱⲡⲓⲥⲧⲟⲥ ⲉⲧⲣⲉⲩⲙⲁⲣⲧⲏⲣⲓⲍⲉ
ⲉⲡⲉⲓⲉⲛⲅⲣⲁⲫⲟⲛ ⲛⲇⲱⲣⲉⲁⲥⲧⲓⲕⲟⲛ ⲛⲁⲧⲡⲁⲣⲁ\ⲃⲁ/ ⲙⲙⲟϥ
ⲁⲩⲱ ⲛⲁⲧⲕⲓⲙ ⲉⲣⲟϥ ⲉⲃⲟⲗ ϩⲓⲧⲟⲟⲧⲟⲩ ⲛⲛⲛⲟⲙⲟⲥ
ⲉⲧⲕⲏ ⲉϩⲣⲁⲓ ⲉⲓⲥϩⲁⲓ ⲙⲡⲙⲟⲛⲁⲥⲧⲏⲣⲓⲟⲛ ⲉⲧⲟⲩⲁⲁⲃ ⲁⲡⲁ ⲫⲓⲃⲁⲙⲟⲛ ⲙⲡⲧⲟⲟⲩ
10 ⲛϫⲏⲙⲉ ⲡⲁⲓ ⲉⲧϩⲁ ⲧϩⲩⲡⲟⲧⲁⲅⲏ ⲙⲡⲉⲛⲇⲟⲝⲁⲧⲁⲧⲟⲥ ⲛϫⲟⲉⲓⲥ ⲛⲉⲓⲱⲧ ⲛⲁⲣⲭⲱ
ⲡⲕⲉⲓⲣⲓⲥ ⲯⲙⲱ ⲁⲩⲱ ⲡⲇⲓⲉⲓ̣ⲕⲉⲧⲏⲥ ⲙⲡⲙⲟⲛⲁⲥⲧⲏⲣⲓⲟⲛ ⲉⲧⲟⲩⲁⲁⲃ ⲙⲛ ⲡⲕⲁⲥⲧⲣⲟⲛ
ⲧⲏⲣϥ ⲭⲁⲓⲣⲉⲧⲉ ⲉⲡⲓⲇⲏ ⲛⲛⲟⲙⲟⲥ ⲙⲡⲛⲟⲩⲧⲉ ⲡϣⲁⲛϩⲧⲏϥ ⲡⲣⲟⲧⲣⲉⲡⲉ
ⲙⲡⲅⲉⲛⲟⲥ ⲧⲏⲣϥ ⲛⲛⲣⲱⲙⲉ ⲉϩⲟⲩⲛ ⲉⲩⲙⲛⲧⲣⲉϥⲣ ⲡⲡⲉⲧⲛⲁⲛⲟⲩϥ
ⲧⲁⲣⲟⲩⲙⲁⲁⲧⲉ ⲙⲡⲕⲱ ⲉⲃⲟⲗ ⲛⲛⲉⲩⲛⲟⲃⲉ ⲉⲧⲃⲉ ϫⲉ ⲙⲛ ⲁⲧⲛⲟⲃⲉ
15 ⲉⲓⲙⲏⲧⲉⲓ ⲉⲡⲛⲟⲩⲧⲉ ⲡⲉⲓⲁⲧⲛⲟⲃⲉ ⲙⲛⲛⲥⲱⲥ ⲉ̣ⲙ̣ⲛ̣ ⲗⲁⲁⲩ ⲛⲉ-
ⲝⲟⲩⲥⲉⲓⲁ ⲉϥⲛⲁⲁⲣⲭⲉⲓ ⲕⲁⲧⲉ ⲕⲁⲓⲣⲟⲥ ⲕⲱⲗⲩ ⲛⲗⲁⲁⲩ ⲛⲣⲱⲙⲉ ⲉⲉⲣ
ⲡⲉⲧⲉϥⲟⲩⲁⲁϣϥ ϩⲛ ⲡⲉⲧⲉ ⲡⲱϥ ⲡⲉ ⲉⲡⲓⲇⲏ ϩⲛ ⲡⲉⲓⲕⲁⲓⲣⲟⲥ ⲡⲁⲓ ⲉⲧⲛⲛϩⲏⲧϥ
ⲁⲩϫⲡⲉ ⲟⲩϣⲏⲣⲉ ϣⲏⲙ ⲛϩⲟⲟⲩⲧ ⲛⲁⲓ ⲁⲛⲟⲕ ⲧⲁⲭⲏⲗ ⲧⲉⲥϩⲓⲙⲉ ⲁⲩⲱ ⲧⲉ-
ⲉⲗⲉⲩⲑⲉⲣⲁ ϩⲛ ⲡⲉϥⲙⲉϩⲥⲁϣϥ ⲛⲉⲃⲟⲧ ⲁⲓⲉⲣⲏⲧ ⲙⲙⲟϥ ⲛϭⲁⲟⲩⲟⲛ
20 ⲉϩⲟⲩⲛ ⲉⲡⲙⲟⲛⲁⲥⲧⲏⲣⲓⲟⲛ ⲉⲧⲟⲩⲁⲁⲃ ⲛⲁⲡⲁ ⲫⲓⲃⲁⲙⲱⲛ ⲙⲡⲧⲟⲟⲩ ⲛϫⲏⲙⲉ
ϫⲉ ⲉⲣϣⲁⲛⲡⲛⲟⲩⲧⲉ ⲧⲟⲩϫⲟϥ ⲉⲡⲙⲟⲩ ϯⲛⲁⲧⲁⲁϥ ⲉϩⲟⲩⲛ ⲉⲡⲧⲟⲡⲟⲥ
ⲉⲧⲟⲩⲁⲁⲃ ⲙⲛⲛⲥⲱⲥ ϩⲙ ⲡⲧⲣⲉⲡⲛⲟⲩⲧⲉ ⲁⲩⲝⲁⲛⲉ ⲙⲡⲕⲟⲩⲓ ⲛϣⲏⲣⲉ ⲛϥⲉⲓ
ⲉϩⲣⲁⲓ ⲡⲁⲓ ⲛⲧⲁⲓϯ ⲣⲁⲛϥ ϩⲓ ⲡⲃⲁⲡⲧⲓⲥⲙⲁ ⲉⲧⲟⲩⲁⲁⲃ ϫⲉ ⲁⲑⲁⲛⲁⲥⲉⲓⲟⲥ
ⲁⲡⲁⲗⲟⲅⲓⲥⲙⲟⲥ ⲉⲧⲥⲟⲣⲙ ⲛⲟϫⲧ ⲉⲩⲛⲟϭ ⲛⲛⲟⲃⲉ ⲉⲓⲉⲡⲓⲃⲟⲩⲗⲉⲩⲉ
25 ⲉⲡⲉⲓⲕⲟⲩⲓ ⲛϣⲏⲣⲉ ϫⲉ ⲛⲛⲉⲓⲧⲁⲁϥ {ϫⲉ ⲛⲛⲁⲧⲁⲁϥ} [ⲉⲡ]ⲙⲁ ⲉⲧⲟⲩⲁⲁⲃ
ϩⲙ ⲡⲧⲣⲉⲡⲛⲟⲩⲧⲉ ϭⲱϣⲧ ⲉϫⲛ ⲧⲁⲛⲟⲙⲉⲓ ⲛⲧⲁⲓⲁⲁⲥ ⲁϥⲛⲉϫ
ⲡⲕⲟⲩⲓ ⲛϣⲏⲣⲉ ⲉϩⲣⲁⲓ ⲉⲩⲛⲟϭ ⲛϣⲱⲛⲉ ⲉⲁϥⲣ ⲟⲩⲛⲟϭ ⲛⲟⲩⲟⲉⲓϣ ϩⲙ
ϩⲱⲥⲧⲉ ⲛⲧⲁⲟⲡϥ ⲛⲧⲟⲟⲧ ⲙⲛ ⲟⲩⲟⲛ ⲛⲓⲙ ⲉⲧⲛⲁⲩ ⲉⲣⲟϥ ϫⲉ ⲁϥⲙⲟⲩ ϩⲛ
ϩⲛ ⲡⲧⲣⲁⲣ ⲡⲙⲉⲩⲉ ⲙⲡⲛⲟⲃⲉ ⲙ[ⲛ ⲧ]ⲧⲟⲗⲙⲏⲣⲓⲁ ⲛⲧⲁⲓⲁⲁⲥ ⲁⲓⲟⲩⲉϩⲙ
30 ⲕⲧⲟⲓ ⲁⲓⲡⲁⲣⲁⲕⲁⲗⲉⲓ ⲙⲡⲡⲉⲧⲟⲩⲁⲁⲃ ϩⲛ ⲡⲉϥⲧⲟⲡⲟⲥ ϫⲉ ⲉⲕϣⲁⲛⲡⲁ-
ⲣⲁⲕⲁⲗⲉⲓ ⲙⲡⲛⲟⲩⲧⲉ ⲛϥⲭⲁⲣⲓⲍⲉ ⲙⲡⲧⲁⲗϭⲟ ⲙⲡⲉⲓϣⲏⲣⲉ ϣⲏⲙ
ϯⲛⲁⲛⲟϫϥ ⲉϩⲟⲩⲛ ⲉⲡⲧⲟⲡⲟⲥ ϣⲁ ⲉⲛⲉϩ ⲡⲣⲟⲥ ⲧⲁϩⲟⲙⲟⲗⲟⲅⲉⲓⲁ ⲛϣⲟⲣⲡ
ⲗⲟⲓⲡⲟⲛ ⲁⲡⲛⲁⲏⲧ ⲛⲛⲟⲩⲧⲉ ⲡϣⲁⲛϩⲧⲏϥ ϣⲛ ϩⲧⲏϥ ⲉϫⲛ ⲡⲕⲟⲩⲓ
ⲛϣⲏⲣⲉ ⲁϥⲭⲁⲣⲓⲍⲉ ⲛⲁϥ ⲙⲡⲧⲁⲗϭⲟ ⲁⲓϥⲓⲧϥ ⲛⲛⲁϭⲓϫ ⲁⲓⲛⲟϫϥ
35 ⲉϩⲟⲩⲛ ⲉⲡⲧⲟⲡⲟⲥ ⲉⲧⲟⲩⲁⲁⲃ ⲉⲃⲟⲗ ϫⲉ ⲁϥϩⲉ ⲉϩⲣⲁⲓ ⲉⲩϣⲱⲛⲉ
ⲛⲇⲁⲓⲙⲱⲛ ⲁⲣⲱⲙⲉ ⲛⲓⲙ ⲛⲁⲩ ⲉⲣⲟϥ ⲁⲩ̣ⲣ ϣⲡⲏⲣⲉ ⲙⲙⲟϥ ⲉⲡⲱⲣϫ ⲟⲩⲛ
ⲙⲡⲙⲁ ⲉⲧⲟⲩⲁⲁⲃ ⲁⲩ̣ϣⲓⲛⲉ ϩⲓⲧⲟⲟⲧ ⲛⲥⲁ ⲡⲉⲓⲇⲱⲣⲉⲁⲥⲧⲓⲕⲟⲛ ϩⲁ ⲡⲁ-
ⲙⲉⲣⲓⲧ ⲛϣⲏⲣⲉ ⲁⲑⲁⲛⲁⲥⲓⲟ(ⲥ) ⲡⲁⲓ ⲛⲧⲁⲓϯ ⲡⲁⲟⲩⲟⲓ ⲉⲣⲟϥ ⲉⲓⲟⲛϩ
ⲉⲣⲉⲡⲁⲛⲟⲩⲥ ⲙⲙⲟⲓ ⲉⲣⲉⲡⲁⲗⲟⲅⲓⲥⲙⲟⲥ ⲧⲁϫⲣⲏⲩ ⲉⲙⲛ ⲗⲁⲁⲩ ⲛϣⲱⲛⲉ
40 ⲛⲥⲱⲙⲁⲧⲓⲕⲟⲛ ⲧⲱ ϩⲓⲱⲱⲧ ⲁⲗⲗⲁ ϩⲛ ⲡⲁⲟⲩⲱϣ ⲛϩⲏⲧ ⲙⲛ ⲧⲁⲡⲣⲟ-
ϩⲉⲣⲁⲓⲥⲓⲥ ⲙⲙⲓⲛ ⲉⲙⲙⲟⲓ ⲭⲱⲣⲓⲥ ⲗⲁⲁⲩ ⲛⲕⲣⲟϥ ϩⲓ ϩⲟⲧⲉ ϩⲓ ϫⲓⲛϭ-
ⲟⲛⲥ ϩⲓ ⲁⲡⲁⲧⲏ ϩⲓ ⲥⲉⲛⲁⲣⲡⲁⲅⲏ ⲉⲓϩⲟⲙⲟⲗⲟⲅⲉⲓ ⲉⲓⲁⲡⲟⲧⲁⲥⲉ ⲙⲡⲁϣⲏⲣⲉ
ⲁⲑⲁⲛⲁⲥⲓⲟⲥ ⲉϩⲟⲩⲛ ⲉⲡⲙⲟⲛⲁⲥⲧⲏⲣⲓⲟⲛ ⲉⲧⲟⲩⲁⲁⲃ ⲡⲁⲓ ⲛ-
ⲧⲁⲓϣⲣⲡ ⲥϩⲁⲓϥ ϫⲓⲛ ⲛⲧⲉ ϣⲁ ⲉⲛⲉϩ ⲁⲩⲱ ϣⲁ ⲭⲣⲟⲛⲟⲥ ⲛⲓⲙ
45 ⲉϥⲛⲏⲩ ⲙⲛⲛⲥⲱⲓ ϣⲁ ⲉⲛⲉϩ ⲁⲩⲱ ⲡⲣⲱⲙⲉ ⲉⲧⲛⲁⲧⲟⲗⲙⲁ
ⲉⲉⲓ ⲉⲃⲟⲗ ⲉⲡⲉⲓϣⲏⲣⲉ ϣⲏⲙ ⲛⲧⲉⲓⲙⲓⲛⲉ ⲉϥⲛⲁⲥⲱⲕ ⲉϩⲣⲁⲓ
ϩⲁ ⲡⲉⲕⲣⲓⲙⲁ ⲛⲧⲁⲡⲣⲟⲥⲫⲟⲣⲁ ϩⲓ ⲡⲃⲏⲙⲁ ⲙⲡⲛⲟⲩⲧⲉ ⲛⲧⲁ-
ϫⲓ ϩⲁⲡ ⲛⲙⲙⲁϥ ⲉⲩⲱⲣϫ ⲟⲩⲛ ⲙⲡⲙⲁ ⲉⲧⲟⲩⲁⲁⲃ ⲁⲓⲥⲙⲛ ⲡⲉⲓⲇⲱⲣⲉⲁⲥⲧⲓⲕⲟⲛ
ϥⲟⲣϫ ϥϭⲙ ϭⲟⲙ ϩⲛ ⲙⲁ ⲛⲓⲙ ⲉⲩⲛⲁⲁⲙⲫⲁⲛⲓⲍⲉ ⲙⲙⲟϥ ⲛϩⲏⲧϥ +
50 + ⲁⲛⲟⲕ ⲡⲁⲡⲁⲥ ⲛⲇⲓ(ⲁⲕⲟⲛⲟⲥ) ⲙⲛ ⲅⲉⲱⲣ(ⲅⲓⲟⲥ) ⲛⲫⲓⲗⲟⲑ(ⲉⲟⲥ) ⲙⲛ ⲭⲁⲏⲗ ⲛⲓⲱⲁ(ⲛⲛⲏⲥ) ⲛⲁⲓ ⲛⲣⲙ ⲁⲡⲏ̣ ⲧⲛⲟ
ⲙⲙⲛⲧⲣⲉ ⲥⲉⲛⲁⲅⲁ ⲁⲓⲥϩⲁⲓ ϩⲁⲣ\ⲟⲩ̣/

'In the name of the Holy, life-giving, and consubstantial Trinity, the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit. Written in the month of Thoth, on the first, of the fifth indiction year.
I, Tachel, the daughter of Sophia, from Ape in the district of the city of Hermonthis, and also my sister Elizabeth partaking in this together with me, we are providing, hereafter, a scribal assistant who will sign for us and we are asking trustworthy witnesses to let them bear witness to this inviolable and, through the existing laws, unchangeable donation document.
I write to the holy monastery of Apa Phoibammon on the mountain of Jeme, this one which is yielding to the superiority of the most glorious fatherly ruling lord, master (kyrios) Psmo, the administrator (dioiketes) of the holy monastery and the entire castron (= Jeme), greetings.
Since the laws of God, the compassionate, encourage the entire human race to an attainment of what is good, so that the forgiveness of their sins is obtained, since there is no sinless one, except for God, this sinless one. Moreover, there is no authority, who will rule at any time, hindering anyone to do what he wants with that which is his own.
At this time in which we are now, a small male child was born to me, Tachel, the wife and married woman. In his seventh month, I pledge him as a servant to the holy monastery of Apa Phoibammon on the mountain of Jeme, in the following manner: “If God saves him from death, I shall donate him to the holy place (topos).” Afterwards, when God let the small boy grow up and he developed, this one who I have named Athanasios at the holy baptism, my confused reasoning led me into great sin, deciding, with respect to the young boy, that I shall not donate him to the holy place.
When God looked onto the lawlessness I had committed, he cast the young boy into a severe illness, which lasted a long time, so that I, and anyone who saw him, assumed that he died. When I remembered the sin and audacity I had committed, I turned around again and I entreated the saint in his place (topos) in the following manner: “If you entreat God and he grants healing to this small child, I shall place him in the topos eternally in accordance with my first agreement.”
Now, the merciful God, the compassionate, took pity on the young boy and granted him healing. I had carried him in my arms and had placed him in the holy place (topos), because he had fallen into a demonic illness. Everyone saw him and marvelled at him.
With respect then to the security for the holy place, this donation document was asked from me concerning my beloved son Athanasios, this document with which I have proceeded, while being alive, my mind with me, my reasoning strong, without any physical impairment on me, but through my inner desire and my very own decision, without any guile, fear, force, deceit or deception, I acknowledge and assign my son Athansios to the aforementioned holy monastery, from now on until eternity and for any time coming after me until eternity.
The person who shall dare to come forth against this mentioned young child, will submit to the condemnation of my sacrifice at God’s tribune (bema) and I will litigate with him.
As security then for the holy place, I have produced this donation document, it being firm and valid at any place at which it will be shown.
I, the deacon Papas, and Georgios, son of Philotheos, and Chael, son of John, these men, residents of Ape, we bear witness.
I, Senaga, have written for them.'

(Text: W. E. Crum and G. Steindorff, German trans. W. C. Till, Engl. trans. G. Schenke)

History

Evidence ID

E00188

Saint Name

Phoibammon, soldier martyr of Preht (ob. c. 304) : S00080

Saint Name in Source

ⲁⲡⲁ ⲫⲓⲃⲁⲙⲟⲛ

Type of Evidence

Documentary texts - Donation document

Language

Coptic

Evidence not before

766

Evidence not after

766

Activity not before

766

Activity not after

766

Place of Evidence - Region

Egypt and Cyrenaica Egypt and Cyrenaica

Place of Evidence - City, village, etc

Ape Hermonthis

Place of evidence - City name in other Language(s)

Ape Hermopolis ϣⲙⲟⲩⲛ Ashmunein Hermopolis Hermonthis Hermopolis ϣⲙⲟⲩⲛ Ashmunein Hermopolis

Cult activities - Places

Cult building - monastic

Cult activities - Places Named after Saint

  • Monastery

Cult activities - Non Liturgical Practices and Customs

Prayer/supplication/invocation

Cult Activities - Miracles

Miracle after death Punishing miracle Healing diseases and disabilities

Cult Activities - Protagonists in Cult and Narratives

Women Children Ecclesiastics - abbots Other lay individuals/ people

Source

P.KRU 86, complete papyrus document located at the British Museum in London, Pap. 85. These documents testify, often in great detail, to a healing cult at the monastery of Apa Phoibammon. Patients remain in the holy place (topos) for a period of time, praying and entreating the saint to grant healing, and receiving the eucharist. Holy water in a basin by the altar seems to play an essential role in the healing miracles performed, when poured over the patient.

Discussion

Of the twenty-six child donation documents known so far, P.KRU 78–103 (E00179–E00204), dating from the years 734–786, nearly half are entirely preserved (P.KRU 79–82 86, 88, 91, 93, 96, 99, 100). In these documents parents state their desire to donate their son as a lifelong servant to Apa Phoibammon. The reason stated in these documents is a miraculous healing bestowed upon these children through the intervention of Apa Phoibammon. It is explicitly stated that parents proceed with this donation for the salvation of their own souls. In most documents, fathers are donating the child with the consent of its mother; occasionally, however, this procedure is carried out by mothers acting independently (P.KRU 79, 81, 86, 95), either as widows, or by simply not mentioning a husband. Formally, these donation documents following a successful healing are carried out as legal documents, addressed to the managerial body (the dikaion) of the monastery and/or to its current superior. They are written by a professional scribe, read out by a notary, approved by the donor, and signed by several witnesses. They form the final link in a chain of cult events aiming to secure a miracle healing performed in the saint’s sanctuary and are intended to ensure its lasting effect. This document belongs to a group of seven child donation documents (together with P.KRU 80, 85, 89, 96, 97, and 100), which report that a child is pledged to the Saint at birth, in analogy to 1 Samuel 1, but because the parents fail to honour this agreement they are punished with a severe illness of their child. They beg the Saint for forgiveness and promise to donate their child to the monastery, if the Saint should grant him healing. This he does, and the boy is donated. Whether the original pledge, which was then dishonoured, was a purely private promise between the donor and the Saint, without any formal documentation or witnessing is unclear, as here in line 32 a contract (homologia) is mentioned with respect to that earlier pledge, which might refer to a written document. 1 Samuel 1 is not mentioned in this document, unlike in other similar texts, presumably because Tachel, unlike the mother of Samuel, did not pledge her son prior to or at birth, but seven month later.

Bibliography

Edition: Crum, W.E., and Steindorff, G., Koptische Rechtsurkunden des achten Jahrhunderts aus Djeme (Theben) (Leipzig, 1971), 253–320 (P. KRU 78–103). German Translations: Till, W.C., Die Koptischen Rechtsurkunden aus Theben (Vienna: H. Böhlaus, 1964), 149–186. Further reading: Biedenkopf-Ziehner, A., Koptische Schenkungsurkunden aus Thebais: Formeln und Topoi der Urkunden, Aussagen der Urkunden, Indices (Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 2001). Godlewski, W., Deir el-Bahari V: Le monastère de St. Phoibammon (Warsaw: PWN, 1986). Papaconstantinou, A., "Notes sur les actes de donation d’enfants au monastère thébain de Saint-Phoibammon," The Journal of Juristic Papyrology 32 (2002), 83–105. Papaconstantinou, A., "Theia oikonomia. Les actes thébains de donation d’enfants ou la gestion monastique de la pénurie," in: Mélanges Gilbert Dagron (Paris: Association des amis du Centre d'histore et civilisation de Byzance, 2002), 511–526. Richter, T.S., "What’s in a story? Cultural narratology and Coptic child donation documents," The Journal of Juristic Papyrology 35 (2005), 237–264. Schaten, S., "Koptische Kinderschenkungsurkunden," Bulletin de la Société d’archéologie copte 35 (1996), 129–142. Schenke, G., "The Healing Shrines of St Phoibammon. Evidence of Cult Activity in Coptic Legal Documents," Zeitschrift für Antikes Christentum (ZAC) 2016, 20(3), 496–523. Schroeder, C., "Children and Egyptian Monasteries," in: C. B. Horn and R. R. Phenix (eds.), Children in Late Ancient Christianity (Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2009), 317–338. Thissen, H.–J., "Koptische Kinderschenkungsurkunden. Zur Hierodulie im christlichen Ägypten," Enchoria 14 (1986), 117–128. Wipszycka, E., "Resources and Economic Activities of the Egyptian Monastic Communities (4th–8th century)," The Journal of Juristic Papyrology 41 (2011), 159–263, esp. 221–227. For a full range of the documentary evidence on Phoibammon: Papaconstantinou, A., Le culte des saints en Égypte des Byzantins aux Abbassides (Paris: CNRS, 2001), 204–214.

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